Library@Kendriya Vidyalaya Pattom

Where Minds meet and Ideas pop up !

International Childrens Book Day, 2008


International Childrens Book Day, 2008

Exhibition of Books by 

H.C. Andersen

01-05 April 2008 

Stories by H.C. Andersen includes the following

    Ugly Duckling
    The Swineherd
    The Emperor’s New Clothes
    The Little Sea-Maid
    The Elfin Mound
    The Wild Swans
    The Garden Of Paradise
    The Constant Tin Soldier
    The Daisy
    The Storks
    The Darning-Needle
    The Shadow
    The Red Shoes
    Little Ida’s Flowers
    The Angel
    The Flying Trunk
    The Tinder-Box
    The Buckwheat
    The Bell

Filed under: Exhibitions,Displays, , ,

CBSE School Library Guidelines


CBSE School Library Guidelines


Filed under: Downloads, , , , ,

CBSE Senior School Carriculum 2008 Vol.I

senior-school-carriculum-2008 vol i.pdf

CBSE Senior School Carriculum 2008 Vol.II

seniorcurriculam-2008 vol ii.pdf




CBSE Senior School Carriculum 2009 Vol.I

senior school-curriculum-2009-vol I .pdf

CBSE Senior School Carriculum 2009 Vol.II




Filed under: Downloads, , , , , , , , , , ,



Sixth Central Pay Commission Report,2008


Click to download

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Creative Teacher

Sculptute shows turn to be objects of luxury learning


Nocturnal excursions

Once in a bue moon you stumble into a show that represents both a departure and return to basics. V.Satheesan’s show at Delhi’s Lalit Kala Akademi came to the capital city as quietly as the rain that rustled into the chill of winter. Granite, bronze and fibre glass sculptures have been the staple of his art a dozen years earlier, but sometimes painted and sometimes unpainted.

Another staple is his deeper connotations in time, made in several variations; endlessly considered in his drawings of that reflect a thought process that come through as cerebral translations. Take for instance the Theyyam dancer, placed on a rock in a state of aesthetic ascension. “I called this Disturbed Festival, at first, says Sathesan who struggles to make a living in Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala.

“In Kerala, very few people would think of paying money for art,” says Satheesan who works as a school teacher at Kendriya Vidyalaya. This show has been brought to Delhi by Kerala’s Lalit Kala Akademi. Satheesan who did his M.F.A. at the College of Art in Delhi has a speculative, handmade, down-home quality about his creations. Each work is a variation on a volumetric theme achieved by one or two adjustments to a container of thought that is often open-ended.

His most emotive work is a pair of granite owls called Friends. “I put pepper into the granite to create blackened button-like tones for the eyes,” he says. The owls are perhaps his most brilliant evocation. As the rays of the setting winter sun spill through the glazings at Lalit Kala the evenglow spills across the ridgelines made in the granite. And you could imagine tales of yesteryear, when diurnal hunters fled to roost. The textures that are naturally created give us a sense of the cooling of forest slumbers – and you think of past tales wherein a solitary hamlet would emit the embers of a living fire.

The pair of owls actually lead to a kind of silent stir, perhaps in the subtle hints of tenebrous wood, wherein their eyelids-close between dusk and the pale tint of sliver moonshine. Magical indeed is the shading of soft-winged hunger that the works reflect, plunging us into the depths of stories that spin around the dark-eyed, taloned, creatures who wait for the shadows.

Several other works are doubled by interior thoughts but have few discrepancies. The thread of commonality weaving the show together is the conceptual frame of reference to modern day happenings, enabling Satheesan to draw out strands of thought from commonplace realities, particularly with reference to themes, materials, techniques and craftsmanship. Far removed from the crass commercialism of the markets Satheesan creates in his solitude — balancing life as a teacher and sitting down to think as an artist.

Not all the works in the show are of the same grade, but the sculptor is able to establish the avant garde status through a dominant and sound intellectual narrative that gives the austere frontality a significant realist patterning.

Then it is the Theyyam figure that literally translates sound vibrations through play of lines from curved to rigid sharpness to reflect the fluid rhythm. The rock that distills the edge of creation has about it a rare aura — one which is mature and has an efflorescence that blends religion and culture into the abacus of connectivity, clarifying an artistic journey which has witnessed a growing social and politico-cultural concern. Theyyam has a frame of reference, that seems to levitate — an aberrant moment of illusion that encapsulates tradition and the discomfort of reality.

But the main point about this piece is that it is all emphatically there to be seen. The ideas are there for the looking, which is generous, and is least predictable. Satheesan’s love of visible space and declarative structure and his exaltation of the powers of human perception — the main themes of his art — are fully evident here. And countering such high-mindedness is the fact that there is more to his work than sharp and shadowy silhouettes, including an involvement with materials and process that takes his work beyond the garden-variety run of the mill-flavoured art.

Simplicty of intent then creates an aura of cerebro-artistic professionalism. The pieces in the show gain succour by the fact that their skewed curvilinear geometries conflate the pedestal-object relationship of traditional sculpture; their linear silhouettes read almost as renditions in space, angular (and minimalist) or curving (and surrealist).

Humble and motley sculptors like Satheesan who create out of a struggle-filled reality move away from a well-worn sculptural rut, providing further proof that sculpture must be the confluence of a well-lived consciousness.

Courtesy: Uma Nair,Economic Times, 23 Feb.2008

Filed under: Snippets,

Quotation of the week


Joanna Baillie (1762–1851)

The brave man is not he who feels no fear,
For that were stupid and irrational;
But he, whose noble soul its fears subdues,
And bravely dares the danger nature shrinks from.

JOANNA BAILLIE, “Basil: A Tragedy,” The Complete Poetical Works of Joanna Baillie, vol. 1, p. 39 (1832).

Filed under: Snippets,

Book of the week


My Country My Life

By L.K.Advani 
‘My Country My Life’ covers all the major and minor events in the life of Advani, like his joining the RSS, trauma of Partition, meeting with Atal Bihari Vajpayee, days of the Jana Sangh, Emergency, Ayodhya, Rath Yatra, his stint in the government as Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister, Agra Summit, Kargil, Terrorism, Controversy surrounding Jinnah remark, and so on. The best part of the book is that Advani has taken the perspective of a participant, and not a historian, while writing it.


Filed under: Book of the week, ,

Young World Quiz (March 21, 2008)



1. The actor who played Sirius Black in the Harry Potter movies celebrates his birthday on this date. Name him.

2. Who was the last male player to win FIFA World Player of the Year award two years in a row?

3. We should thank Fraunhofer Gesellschaft for creating and patenting which popular music format?

4. Fill in the blank: “Sea gull, sea gull, sit on the sand; It’s a sign of _______ when you are at hand.”

5. To which European leader is the term ‘axis’ as used in the WWII alliance popularly attributed?

6. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce is considered as an inventor/pioneer of which ‘visual’ activity?

7. If either Christopher Columbus or Vasco da Gama had ‘thalassophobia’, they would not have done what they did. What is ‘thalassophobia’ a fear of?

8. Maumoon Abdul Gayoom is the President of…?

9. Which animal is also called sand rat or desert rat?

10. India won the Olympic gold in men’s hockey uninterrupted from 1928 to…?

11. The legislative capital of South Africa is…?

12. In which part of the brain is the cerebrum?

13. Which type of coffee is usually served in large mug or bowl filled with coffee and steamed milk?

14. What was the nationality of the astronomer Tycho Brahe?

15. What five-lettered word is used for a vault beneath the main level of a church and normally used as a meeting or burial place?


1. Gary Oldman

2. Ronaldinho

3. MP3

4. Rain

5. Benito Mussolini

6. Photography

7. The sea

8. Republic of Maldives

9. Gerbil

10. 1956. It lost in the 1960 final

11. Capetown

12. Forebrain

13. ‘Café au lait’ (sometimes café latte also)

14. He was Danish

15. Crypt

Filed under: Young World Quiz,

Arthur C. Clarke


Arthur C. Clarke

(Passed away on 19/03/2008)

The achievements of Arthur C. Clarke, unique among his peers, bridge the arts and sciences. His works and his authorship have ranged from scientific discovery to science fiction, from technical application to entertainment, and have made a global impact on the lives of present and future generations.Arthur C. Clarke is the son of an English farming family, born in the seaside town of Minehead, Somerset, England on December 16, 1917. In 1998, his lifetime work was recognized by H.M. The Queen when he was honored with a Knighthood – formally conferred by Prince Charles in Sri Lanka two years later.

After attending schools in his home county, Arthur Clarke moved to London in 1936 and pursued his early interest in space sciences by joining the British Interplanetary Society. He started to contribute to the BIS Bulletin and began to write science fiction.

As with so many young men at the time, World War II interrupted in 1939 and he joined the RAF, eventually becoming an officer in charge of the first radar talk-down equipment, the Ground Controlled Approach, during its experimental trials. Later, his only non-science-fiction novel, Glide Path, was based on this work. After the war, he returned to London and to the BIS, becoming its president in 1947-50 and again in 1953.

In 1945, a UK periodical magazine “Wireless World” published his landmark technical paper “Extra-terrestrial Relays” in which he first set out the principles of satellite communication with satellites in geostationary orbits – a speculation realized 25 years later. During the evolution of his discovery, he worked with scientists and engineers in the USA in the development of spacecraft and launch systems, and addressed the United Nations during their deliberations on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.Clarke’s work, which led to the global satellite systems in use today, brought him numerous honors including the 1982 Marconi International Fellowship, a gold medal of the Franklin Institute, the Vikram Sarabhai Professorship of the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, the Lindbergh Award and a Fellowship of King’s College, London. Today, the geostationary orbit at 36,000 kilometers above the equator is named The Clarke Orbit by the International Astronomical Union.

After leaving the RAF in 1946, he resumed his formal studies and was awarded a Fellowship at King’s College, London where he obtained first class honors in Physics and Mathematics in 1948.

In 1954, Clarke wrote to Dr. Harry Wexler, then chief of the Scientific Services Division, U.S. Weather Bureau, about satellite applications for weather forecasting. From these communications, a new branch of meteorology was born, and Dr. Wexler became the driving force in using rockets and satellites for meteorological research and operations.

At the same time, Clarke has been the author of many books, articles and papers. The first story he sold professionally was “Rescue Party”, written in March 1945 and appearing in Astounding Science in May 1946. He went on to become a prolific writer of science fiction, renowned worldwide and with more than 70 titles to his name. Among his many non-fiction works, “Profiles of the Future” (1962) looked at the probable shape of tomorrow’s world and stated his “Three Laws”.

In 1964, he started to work with the noted film producer Stanley Kubrick on a science fiction movie script. Four years later, he shared an Oscar nomination with Kubrick at the Hollywood Academy Awards for the film version of “2001: A Space Odyssey”. Then, in 1985, he published a sequel, “2010: Odyssey Two” and worked with Peter Hyams on the movie version. Their work was done using a Kaypro computer and a modem, linking Arthur in Sri Lanka and Peter Hyams in Los Angeles, leading to a book “The Odyssey File – The Making of 2010.”

In television, Clarke worked alongside Walter Cronkite and Wally Schirra for the CBS coverage of the Apollo 12 and 15 space missions. His thirteen-part TV series Arthur C. Clarke’s Mysterious World in 1981 and Arthur C. Clarke’s World of strange Powers in 1984 has been screened in many countries and he has contributed to other TV series about space, such as Walter Cronkite’s Universe series in 1981.

Clarke first visited Colombo, Sri Lanka (then called Ceylon) in December 1954 and has lived there since 1956 pursuing an enthusiasm for underwater exploration along that coast and on the Great Barrier Reef. In recent years, he has been largely confined to a wheelchair due to post-polio syndrome, but his output as a writer has continued undiminished.

Arthur C. Clarke passed away on 19th march 2008NOTE: the authorized biography by Neil McAleer – Arthur C. Clarke – The Authorized Biography – was published by Contemporary Books, Chicago, in 1992.


Across the Seas of Stars
Against the Fall of Night
Childhood’s End
City and the Stars
The Deep Range
Dolphin Island
Expedition to Earth
A Fall of Moondust
The Fountains of Paradise
From the Oceans, from the Stars
Ghosts from the Grand Banks
Glide Path
The Hammer of God
Imperial Earth
Islands in the Sky
The Lion of Comarre
The Lost Worlds of 2001
The Nine Billion Names of God
The Other Side of the Sky
Prelude to Mars
Prelude to Space
Reach for Tomorrow
Rendezvous with Rama
The Sands of Mars
The Sentinel
The Songs of Distant Earth
The Sentinel
Tales from the “White Hart”
Tales of Ten Worlds
2001: A Space Odyssey (With Stanley Kubrick)
2010: Odyssey Two
2061: Odyssey Three
3001: The Final Odyssey
The Wind from the SunBooks with Gentry Lee
Rama 11


Extraterrestrial Relays in Wireless World
Space Stations for Global Communications in Wireless World
Ascent to Orbit: A Scientific Autobiography
Astounding days: A Science Fictional Autobiography
Boy Beneath the Sea
The Challenge of the Sea
The Challenge of the Spaceship
The Coast of Coral
The Coming of the Space Age (edited)
The Exploration of the Moon
The Exploration of Space
The First Five Fathoms
Going into Space
How the World Was One
Indian Ocean Adventure
Indian Ocean Treasure
Interplanetary Flight
The Making of a Moon
1984: Spring
Profiles of the Future
The Promise of Space
The Reefs of Taprobane
Report on Planet Three
Science Fiction Hall of fame, III (edited)
Three for Tomorrow (edited)
Time Probe (edited)
Treasure of the Great Reef
The View from Serendip
Voice Across the Sea
Voices from the Sky

Collaborative Works

With Simon Welfare and John Fairley
     Arthur C. Clarke’s Mysterious World
     Arthur C. Clarke’s World of Strange Powers
With the Astronauts
     First on the Moon
With Robert Silverberg
     Into Space
With Chesley Bonestell
     Beyond Jupiter
With the Editors of Life
     Man and Space
With Peter Hyams
     The Odyssey FileFor more on the Author

Filed under: Author of the week,

How to Evaluate a website?

Dear students

How can you assess the authenticity and correctness of the information given on a website?

Here are some usefull links that helps you.



Also read this article published on the website of “The sheridan Libraries” at the John Hopkins University written by Elizabeth E. Kirk

Evaluating Information Found on the Internet

The World Wide Web offers information and data from all over the world. Because so much information is available, and because that information can appear to be fairly “anonymous”, it is necessary to develop skills to evaluate what you find. When you use a research or academic library, the books, journals and other resources have already been evaluated by scholars, publishers and librarians. Every resource you find has been evaluated in one way or another before you ever see it. When you are using the World Wide Web, none of this applies. There are no filters. Because anyone can write a Web page, documents of the widest range of quality, written by authors of the widest range of authority, are available on an even playing field. Excellent resources reside along side the most dubious. The Internet epitomizes the concept of Caveat lector: Let the reader beware. This document discusses the criteria by which scholars in most fields evaluate print information, and shows how the same criteria can be used to assess information found on the Internet.

What to consider:
Publishing body
Point of view or bias
Referral to other sources
How to distinguish propaganda, misinformation and disinformation
The mechanics of determining authorship, publishing body, and currency on the Internet

Authorship is perhaps the major criterion used in evaluating information. Who wrote this? When we look for information with some type of critical value, we want to know the basis of the authority with which the author speaks. Here are some possible filters:

  • In your own field of study, the author is a well-known and well-regarded name you recognize.
  • When you find an author you do not recognize:
    • the author is mentioned in a positive fashion by another author or another person you trust as an authority;
    • you found or linked to the author’s Web/Internet document from another document you trust;
    • the Web/Internet document you are reading gives biographical information, including the author’s position, institutional affiliation and address;
    • biographical information is available by linking to another document; this enables you to judge whether the author’s credentials allow him/her to speak with authority on a given topic;
    • if none of the above, there is an address and telephone number as well as an e-mail address for the author in order to request further information on his or her work and professional background. An e- mail address alone gives you no more information than you already have.

Return to list of considerations

The publishing body also helps evaluate any kind of document you may be reading. In the print universe, this generally means that the author’s manuscript has undergone screening in order to verify that it meets the standards or aims of the organization that serves as publisher. This may include peer review. On the Internet, ask the following questions to assess the role and authority of the “publisher”, which in this case means the server (computer) where the document lives:

  • Is the name of any organization given on the document you are reading? Are there headers, footers, or a distinctive watermark that show the document to be part of an official academic or scholarly Web site? Can you contact the site Webmaster from this document?
  • If not, can you link to a page where such information is listed? Can you tell that it’s on the same server and in the same directory (by looking at the URL)?
  • Is this organization recognized in the field in which you are studying?
  • Is this organization suitable to address the topic at hand?
  • Can you ascertain the relationship of the author and the publisher/server? Was the document that you are viewing prepared as part of the author’s professional duties (and, by extension, within his/her area of expertise)? Or is the relationship of a casual or for-fee nature, telling you nothing about the author’s credentials within an institution?
  • Can you verify the identity of the server where the document resides? Internet programs such dnslookup and whois will be of help.
  • Does this Web page actually reside in an individual’s personal Internet account, rather than being part of an official Web site? This type of information resource should be approached with the greatest caution. Hints on identifying personal pages are available in
    Understanding and Decoding URLs.

Return to list of considerations

Point of view or bias reminds us that information is rarely neutral. Because data is used in selective ways to form information, it generally represents a point of view. Every writer wants to prove his point, and will use the data and information that assists him in doing so. When evaluating information found on the Internet, it is important to examine who is providing the “information” you are viewing, and what might be their point of view or bias. The popularity of the Internet makes it the perfect venue for commercial and sociopolitical publishing. These areas in particular are open to highly “interpretative” uses of data.

Read Information and its Counterfeits: Propaganda, Misinformation and Disinformation for learn more about “interpretational views” that exceed the facts.

Steps for evaluating point of view are based on authorship or affiliation:

  • First, note the URL of the document. Does this document reside on the Web server of an organization that has a clear stake in the issue at hand?
    • If you are looking at a corporate Web site, assume that the information on the corporation will present it in the most positive light.
    • If you are looking at products produced and sold by that corporation, remember: you are looking at an advertisement.
    • If you are reading about a political figure at the Web site of another political party, you are reading the opposition.
  • Does this document reside on the Web server of an organization that has a political or philosophical agenda?
    • If you are looking for scientific information on human genetics, would you trust a political organization to provide it?
    • Never assume that extremist points of view are always easy to detect. Some sites promoting these views may look educational. To learn more, read “Rising Tide: Sites Born of Hate“, New York Times, March 18, 1999. (This link will take you to the online edition of the Times; you must register, free of charge, to view the article).

Many areas of research and inquiry deal with controversial questions, and often the more controversial an issue is, the more interesting it is. When looking for information, it is always critical to remember that everyone has an opinion. Because the structure of the Internet allows for easy self publication, the variety of points of view and bias will be the widest possible.

Return to list of considerations

Referral to and/or knowledge of the literature refers to the context in which the author situates his or her work. This reveals what the author knows about his or her discipline and its practices. This allows you to evaluate the author’s scholarship or knowledge of trends in the area under discussion. The following criteria serve as a filter for all formats of information:

  • The document includes a bibliography.
  • The author alludes to or displays knowledge of related sources, with proper attribution.
  • The author displays knowledge of theories, schools of thought, or techniques usually considered appropriate in the treatment of his or her subject.
  • If the author is using a new theory or technique as a basis for research, he or she discusses the value and/or limitations of this new approach.
  • If the author’s treatment of the subject is controversial, he or she knows and acknowledges this.

Return to list of considerations

Accuracy or verifiability of details is an important part of the evaluation process, especially when you are reading the work of an unfamiliar author presented by an unfamiliar organization, or presented in a non-traditional way. Criteria for evaluating accuracy include:

  • For a research document, the data that was gathered and an explanation of the research method(s) used to gather and interpret it are included.
  • The methodology outlined in the document is appropriate to the topic and allows the study to be duplicated for purposes of verification.
  • The document relies on other sources that are listed in a bibliography or includes links to the documents themselves.
  • The document names individuals and/or sources that provided non- published data used in the preparation of the study.
  • The background information that was used can be verified for accuracy.

Return to list of considerations

Currency refers to the timeliness of information. In printed documents, the date of publication is the first indicator of currency. For some types of information, currency is not an issue: authorship or place in the historical record is more important (e.g., T. S. Eliot’s essays on tradition in literature). For many other types of data, however, currency is extremely important, as is the regularity with which the data is updated. Apply the following criteria to ascertain currency:

  • The document includes the date(s) at which the information was gathered (e.g., US Census data).
  • The document refers to clearly dated information (e.g., “Based on 1990 US Census data.”).
  • Where there is a need to add data or update it on a constant basis, the document includes information on the regularity of updates.
  • The document includes a publication date or a “last updated” date.
  • The document includes a date of copyright.
  • If no date is given in an electronic document, you can view the directory in which it resides and read the date of latest modification.

If you found information using one of the search engines available on the Internet, such as AltaVista or InfoSeek, a directory of the Internet such as Yahoo, or any of the services that rate World Wide Web pages, you need to know:

  • How the search engine decides the order in which it returns information requested. Some Internet search engines “sell” top space to advertisers who pay them to do so. Read Pay for Placement? from
  • That Internet search engines aren’t like the databases found in libraries. Library databases include subject headings, abstracts, and other evaluative information created by information professionals to make searching more accurate. In addition, library databases index more permanent and reliable information.
  • How that search engine looks for information, and how often their information is updated. An excellent source for search engine information is Search Engine Showdown, written by Greg R. Notess.

All information, whether in print or by byte, needs to be evaluated by readers for authority, appropriateness, and other personal criteria for value. If you find information that is “too good to be true”, it probably is. Never use information that you cannot verify. Establishing and learning criteria to filter information you find on the Internet is a good beginning for becoming a critical consumer of information in all forms. “Cast a cold eye” (as Yeats wrote) on everything you read. Question it. Look for other sources that can authenticate or corroborate what you find. Learn to be skeptical and then learn to trust your instincts.

© 1996 Elizabeth E. Kirk

Filed under: How to evaluate a website?,

Library Cartoons & Jokes


Filed under: library Jokes & Cartoons,

Unshelved-Cartoon strip

Filed under: library Jokes & Cartoons,

Fan Club-Writers and Charecters



Harry Potter Fan Club


Agatha Christie


Sherlock Holmes


Jeffrie Archer


John Grisham


Suketu Mehta


Anita Nair


Carl Sagan


Stephen Hawking


Nancy Drew


Hardy Boys


Filed under: Fan Club, , , , , , , , , , ,

Book Reviews


Animal’s People

(Commonwealth writer’s prize, 2008)
by Indra Sinha
366pp, Simon & Schuster, £11.99

How do you write a novel about a world in which unspeakable horror is not the climax, but the air which each character must breathe on every page? The answer, provided by Indra Sinha in his Booker-shortlisted Animal’s People, is to write it using a narrator who has never breathed any other kind of air, and who is by turns cynical and romantic, bawdy and philosophical. His narrator guides us between the worlds of political activists, determined to find justice 20 years after a crime, and his own personal world in which it often seems that the greatest crime of the “Kampani” responsible for his town’s suffering is that it left him crippled and, therefore, undesirable to women despite the great size of his penis.

Behind the clouds

Kamila Shamsie is moved by Indra Sinha’s clever reworking of the Bhopal disaster, Animal’s PeopleSaturday September 15, 2007
The Guardian

Animal's People by Indra Sinha
Buy Animal’s People at the Guardian bookshop
Animal’s People
by Indra Sinha
366pp, Simon & Schuster, £11.99
How do you write a novel about a world in which unspeakable horror is not the climax, but the air which each character must breathe on every page? The answer, provided by Indra Sinha in his Booker-shortlisted Animal’s People, is to write it using a narrator who has never breathed any other kind of air, and who is by turns cynical and romantic, bawdy and philosophical. His narrator guides us between the worlds of political activists, determined to find justice 20 years after a crime, and his own personal world in which it often seems that the greatest crime of the “Kampani” responsible for his town’s suffering is that it left him crippled and, therefore, undesirable to women despite the great size of his penis. The Kampani, never named, is Union Carbide, whose pesticide plant released 40 tonnes of lethal gas into the city of Bhopal in 1984, killing thousands (both immediately and in the years that followed), and contaminating drinking water which remains toxic. In Animal’s People, Bhopal’s name is changed to Khaufpur – the City of Fear. One of the early delights of the novel is the website to which it directs readers ( which could easily lead one to believe Khaufpur exists. It details the centuries old history of Khaufpur (which is, in fact, the history of Bhopal) and as you enter its matrimonial and classified sections you find characters from the novel. This is not just the playfulness of a writer of fiction trying to make his world appear convincing. Sinha (who, on the website, appears as a female journalist named Indira Sinha) has a sharp political purpose in telling the story of Bhopal’s victims and drawing attention to the fact that it is a story which should, in a world of any conscience, remain within the realm of fiction.

Our narrator’s name is Animal – he claims it is his nature, too. Twenty years old, he was born the year of the industrial accident which killed his parents and left him with a spine so twisted that he has to walk on all fours, his backside raised higher than his head. He is brought up by Ma Franci, a French nun who was struck by a form of aphasia when the gas leak occurred: she immediately forgot all her Hindi and English, and only retained French; consequently, she believes the factory’s gases turned everyone except herself into gibbering creatures without the power of speech. Animal, alone, can speak to her in the French she understands.

Desire, rather than politics, leads Animal into the company of activists, spearheaded by Zafar, who has come to Khaufpur to campaign against the Kampani – which still hasn’t accepted its culpability, or offered meaningful redress for the victims. Animal is less interested in Zafar’s moral fervour than in his passion for Nisha, the woman Animal loves. Soon he is plotting to poison Zafar to keep him away from Nisha.

Into this world steps Elli, an American doctor who wants to open a free clinic for the people of Khaufpur. Zafar believes she is there on behalf of the Kampani, collecting data which she will then twist to claim that the Kampani is in no way responsible for the suffering of Khaufpur’s people. Zafar sends Animal to spy on Elli – a task he’s more than eager to carry out on account of the jeans Elli wears, which are so tight her legs appeared to be dyed blue.

There is a point in the novel when it begins to meander – too many characters introduced, and little narrative tension beyond the question of how many sentences can pass before we have to hear of Animal’s next arousal. But this is a dip, rather than a serious flaw, and compensated for by the last 100 pages, which have a gathering tension and power that are quite extraordinary. At its best, Sinha’s writing is a blade gleaming in the moonlight. And the novel, for all its pain, is a work of profound humanity.

Reviewed by

Kamila Shamsie’s most recent novel is Broken Verses (Bloomsbury), The Gaurdian

Filed under: Book Reviews, , , ,

Book Reviews


Ian McEwan
Jonathan Cape
The twists and turns of Ian McEwan’s fiction are built on a knack for sustained illusion. When he writes “a glass of beer” we do not just see it; we are willing to drink from it vicariously. The ballooning accident (imaginatively derived from footage of an actual incident) that opens Enduring Love is a spectacular example, but the ability to make the invented seem real animates every page of his work.

The novels’ psychological acuity derives, always, from their fidelity to a precisely delineated reality. Needless to say, the more disturbing or skewed that reality (in the early stories and novels, most obviously), the more finely McEwan attunes his readers to it. Moral ambiguity and doubt are thereby enhanced – rather than resolved – by clarity of presentation. This is why the themes of the novels (with the exception of the enjoyably forgettable Amsterdam ) linger and resonate beyond the impeccable neatness of their arrangement. McEwan is, in other words, a thoroughly traditional original.


Atonement does not feel, at first, like a book by McEwan. The opening is almost perversely ungripping. Instead of the expected sharpness of focus, the first 70 or so pages are a lengthy summary of shifting impressions. One longs for a cinematic clarity and concentration of dialogue and action, but such interludes dissolve before our – and the participants’ – eyes.

Unlike Martin Amis, say, or Salman Rushdie, McEwan is an invisible rather than a flamboyant stylist. Even so, the pallid qualifiers and disposable adverbs (a “gently rocking” sheet of water, the “coyly drooping” head of a nettle) come as a surprise. The language used to distil the scene – a gathering of the Tallis family at their country house on a sweltering day in 1935 – serves also as a wash that partially obscures it.

Various characters come and go but the novel, at this point, seems populated mainly by its literary influences. Chief among these is Virginia Woolf. The technique is not stream of consciousness so much as “a slow drift of association”, “the hovering stillness of nothing much seeming to happen”. The book later contains a critique of its own early pages – or at least of the draft from which they derive – in the guise of a letter from Cyril Connolly, editor of Horizon , who advises that “such writing can become precious when there is no sense of forward movement”. The requisite propulsion is provided by the unexpected intrusion, as it were, of two other novelists from the interwar years.

Cecilia, the eldest daughter of the family in whose house we are imaginatively lodged, was at Cambridge with Robbie, the son of the Tallises’ cleaning lady, whose education was funded by Cecilia’s father. They become aware, on this sultry day, of some kind of current – animosity? irreconcilable attraction? – passing between them. Robbie tries to articulate this in a letter, at the bottom of which he scribbles the naked truth: “In my dreams I kiss your cunt.” He discards that draft and intends to send another, blander one but, in keeping with Freud’s analysis of such slips, accidentally sends the shocking letter to Cecilia via her adolescent sister, Briony, who opens and reads it.

The consequences of the go-between blundering in like this are liberating and incriminating in unequal measure. What Lawrence called the “dirty little secret” of sex besmirches the Tallises’ world, or – as Lawrence insisted – reveals how besmirched that world really is. It is as if Mellors from Lady Chatterley’s Lover has gatecrashed the exquisitely rendered world of Mrs Dalloway . Or as if the contents of McEwan’s stories had been explicitly daubed on the walls of Brideshead.

Another crisis soon follows, this one imported from EM Forster’s India. Cecilia’s young cousin, Lola, is sexually assaulted in the grounds of the house. Lola does not know by whom, but Briony – an aspiring writer – compounds her earlier transgression by convincing her and everyone else (except Cecilia) that Robbie is the culprit. Unlike the incident in the Marabar caves, this one does not end in a retraction and Robbie, the proletarian interloper, is convicted.

In the second section of the novel, the pastel haze of the first part gives way to an acrid, graphic account of Robbie’s later experiences in the British rout at Dunkirk. McEwan is here playing more obviously to his strengths. The highly decorated novelist deploys his research in an effective if familiar pattern of narrative manoeuvres. Refracted through Robbie’s exhausted, wounded view of history in the making, the retreat unfolds in a series of vividly realised details and encounters. In the atrocious context of battle, Briony’s apparently motiveless crime is rendered almost insignificant. “But what was guilt these days? It was cheap. Everyone was guilty, and no one was.”

In similar fashion, the partial democratisation of Britain that results from the social upheaval of war is prefigured by Cecilia’s turning her back on her family and allying herself with Robbie, the working-class graduate (whose smouldering sense of grievance and displacement would be vehemently embodied on the postwar stage by Jimmy Porter).

Part three shifts back to London, where Briony is training as a nurse, struggling to cope with the influx of casualties from Dunkirk. McEwan’s command of visceral shock is here anchored in a historical setting thoroughly authenticated by his archival imagination. The elliptical style of the opening part has no place in these pages, as the graphic horrors of injury, mutilation and death pile up before Briony’s eyes. She loosens the bandage around a patient’s head and his brain threatens to slop out into her hands. Does this devotion to the victims of war wash her hands of her earlier guilt? Does her atonement depend on Robbie’s survival? Or can it be achieved through the eventual realisation of her literary ambitions – through a novel such as the one we are reading? Who can grant atonement to the novelist, whose God-like capacity to create and rework the world means that there is no higher authority to whom appeal can be made?

It is a tribute to the scope, ambition and complexity of Atonement that it is difficult to give an adequate sense of what is going on in the novel without preempting – and thereby diminishing – the reader’s experience of it. Suffice to say, any initial hesitancy about style – any fear that, for once, McEwan may not be not in control of his material -all play their part in his larger purpose.

On the one hand, McEwan seems to be retrospectively inserting his name into the pantheon of British novelists of the 1930s and 1940s. But he is also, of course, doing more than this, demonstrating and exploring what the mature Briony comes to see as a larger “transformation… being worked in human nature itself”. The novels of Woolf and Lawrence did not just record this transformation; they were instrumental in bringing it about. McEwan uses his novel to show how this subjective or interior transformation can now be seen to have interacted with the larger march of 20th- century history.

While John Fowles was working on The French Lieutenant’s Woman, he reminded himself that this was not a book that one of the Victorian novelists forgot to write but, perhaps, one that they had failed to write. A similar impulse underwrites Atonement. It is less about a novelist harking nostalgically back to the consoling uncertainties of the past than it is about creatively extending and hauling a defining part of the British literary tradition up to and into the 21st century

Courtesy: The Gaurdian

Filed under: Book Reviews, ,

Author of the week



Chetan grew up in Delhi most of his life and attended The Army Public School. He from IIT Delhi in 1995 and IIM Ahmedabad in 1997. Post IIM, he has been working in an investment bank in Hong Kong for the last seven years.

His first novel, “Five Point Someone” (FPS), came out in May 2004. It has continued to top the Indian bestseller lists ever since – over seventy weeks after its release. FPS won Chetan the Society Young Achiever’s award in 2004 and the Publisher’s recognition award in 2005. The heartwarming, fast-paced tale of three IITians has enjoyed cult popularity and has even been prescribed as course reading across various Indian universities and schools.

‘one night @ the call center’ is his second novel. It is already a bestseller of 2005 before release, based on advance orders alone.

Apart from writing, the author has a keen interest in Yoga.


 Following chat:courtesy: The Hindu

CHETAN BHAGAT presented me with his first work of fiction, Five Point Someone: What Not To Do at IIT last week with a curious note: ” Don’t stop making friends.” Dead Right. He said he knew someone who took his life because he did not make it to IIT. If that is success, it makes sense to write about why you should have anyone who will like or love you whether you make it or not.

Chetan’s book, launched at Crosswsord, is all about bonding, not GPA, in IIT. Score nine on 10 and have no one eating paranthas with you, score five and have someone who does. Five and a friend is better than 10 and a vacuum. Hari, Ryan, and Alok make it to IIT.

Hari is fat, confused about sticking to books, likes a professor’s daughter, and wants to be Ryan. Ryan is good-looking, confident, drinks and gets others to drink vodka, has parents abroad and curiously stashes away letters from there. Alok is fat, his father’s ill, sister unmarried, family can’t make ends meet — he wants to make 9 on 10. This is trouble: Alok likes time with both, but his own too, to make the grades; Hari partly goes with Alok, but likes to mimic Ryan; Ryan is vodka. Time for oneself to make it big and time together for fun: what’s the take?

Alok and Hari give into Ryan. They talk shop, flirt a bit, crack jokes on gals they’d love to be with but can’t, drink vodka on the insti roof, and guess what, mess up the quiz, land GPAs below six. At IIT, it means you are a nothing.

In between the “paranthas and vodka”, Alok is worried about his family and scores, Hari, that he is not Ryan, and Ryan, confidence masked all the way: insecurities deep down, no confessions. They want to make it big, but think five GPA is OK.

Is Chetan then right? In the pits, the three do a C2D, Co-operate to Dominate — Ryan’s idea. Meaning, they do different parts of a common project to save time and score decent. They don’t. They’re still friends, but the GPA is beginning to tell.

Ryan’s second brainstorm: steal Prof. Cherian’s papers, reproduce them in the tests, make the grades. They bungle. Things fall apart. Alok falls off from the seventh floor or so, takes 13-odd fractures, but lives. Ryan almost decides to. He scares the shit out of Hari when he tells him the fall is easy from the insti roof. Hari is in convulsions. The inquiry comes as the fear of being kicked out.

But someone tells Prof. Cherian that Hari is dating his daughter, Neha. Talk is suddenly about the prof and his daughter. To stave off scandal, Prof. Cherian makes an offer of a semester’s suspension.

Meanwhile, Prof. Veera approves of a project Ryan thinks of on lubes. Alok recovers and they turn out a feasible one.

They get credits and make it through IIT in four years like it should be. Alok lands a job even with five-and-odd, Hari does, but Ryan doesn’t for a month. Campus interviews don’t take five pointers seriously.

Prof. Veera bails out Ryan again, this time as research assistant. Lucky Ryan’s parents pour money into his project. They all make it, not really big, at five-and-odd GPA. But hey, the hitch is here: why would Alok want to fall off the roof and why would Ryan think of jumping when both are good friends?

Isn’t friendship enough to stave off suicidal impulses? Apparently there’s no substitute for better GPAs.

And Prof. Cherian’s son, pressured to make it to IIT, wouldn’t have gone under the train. Chetan’s hearing?

The chat with Chetan was interesting.

Something personal got you to write this.

In a sense. Complexes about how I should look… I was 15 kilos heavier than what I am today. I did think of my self-image a lot… But I should tell you I knew of someone who took his life because he did not make it to IIT…

You are from IIT and IIM. Now in an investment bank in Hong Kong. You can’t get there with low GPAs.

I know I am well off… But my point is IIT is judgmental. You grade yourself every moment. A five-pointer counts for zero. You may get into IIT, but you could carry vulnerabilities — from the past… And once inside, the grades could do you in…

This guy I know scored 10 all four years at IIT. Made it to Stanford, then Columbia. And he has friends…

Maybe there is a vacuum in him…

Not that I know of… And Sandipan Deb (who wrote The IITians thinks IIT gradation beats MIT. Do well here, the world is yours?

I am not saying IIT and its grade system is bad… I am saying having good friends matters even on low GPAs in an IIT… That life is not only about grades… You come with imperfections…

What kind?

Like Hari wants to be Ryan who is good-looking. We always listen to good-looking people more, we want to agree with them… This could be disastrous… You need to be comfortable with yourself…Ryan looks good, but has no love coming from his parents… Alok’s family has problems that never end…

Why’re you into yoga?

When things don’t work out, it helps you let go… bhakti yoga, karma yoga, vidye helps you deal with the world…

But let’s say a sweeper hopes for the better. No scores there. Yoga for them?

A sweeper would like to get somewhere too… I don’t want to claim high moral ground, but a sweeper with six friends is better than a CEO with none…

* * *

Chetan began writing in June 2000, closed in September 2003. The manuscript was rejected 12 tiems. He did not worry that he never was a writer or that there were better writers. “I’ve given it my best. This is my first. I only want to reach out, to tell the story of imperfections we hide… “

The book is vaguely philosophical, but has a funny plot or two, and some IIT argot. Reads easy, but could have had more humour than slang. Not a bad first novel targeting twentysomethings. Appreciate the recognition of angst in the IITian. It must be there, but angst also sells. Just hope Chetan’s angst — for friends — is for real. If it isn’t, you know it’s for sale. If it is, getting it out of the way is a priority.


Filed under: Author of the week, , ,

Article of the Week


Plastic (Not) Fantastic: Food Containers Leach a Potentially Harmful Chemical

Is bisphenol A, a major ingredient in many plastics, healthy for children and other living things?

By David Biello

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous compound in plastics. First synthesized in 1891, the chemical has become a key building block of plastics from polycarbonate to polyester; in the U.S. alone more than 2.3 billion pounds (1.04 million metric tons) of the stuff is manufactured annually.

Since at least 1936 it has been known that BPA mimics estrogens, binding to the same receptors throughout the human body as natural female hormones. And tests have shown that the chemical can promote human breast cancer cell growth as well as decrease sperm count in rats, among other effects. These findings have raised questions about the potential health risks of BPA, especially in the wake of hosts of studies showing that it leaches from plastics and resins when they are exposed to hard use or high temperatures (as in microwaves or dishwashers).

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) found traces of BPA in nearly all of the urine samples it collected in 2004 as part of an effort to gauge the prevalence of various chemicals in the human body. It appeared at levels ranging from 33 to 80 nanograms (a nanogram is one billionth of a gram) per kilogram of body weight in any given day, levels 1,000 times lower than the 50 micrograms (one millionth of a gram) per kilogram of bodyweight per day considered safe by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union’s (E.U.) European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

Studies suggest that BPA does not linger in the body for more than a few days because, once ingested, it is broken down into glucuronide, a waste product that is easily excreted. Yet, the CDC found glucuronide in most urine samples, suggesting constant exposure to it. “There is low-level exposure but regular low-level exposure,” says chemist Steven Hentges, executive director of the polycarbonate / BPA global group of the American Chemistry Council.  “It presumably is in our diet.”

BPA is routinely used to line cans to prevent corrosion and food contamination; it also makes plastic cups and baby and other bottles transparent and shatterproof. When the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins made from the chemical are exposed to hot liquids, BPA leaches out 55 times faster than it does under normal conditions, according to a new study by Scott Belcher, an endocrine biologist at the University of Cincinnati. “When we added boiling water [to bottles made from polycarbonate] and allowed it to cool, the rate [of leakage] was greatly increased,” he says, to a level as high as 32 nanograms per hour.

A recent report in the journal Reproductive Toxicology found that humans must be exposed to levels of BPA at least 10 times what the EPA has deemed safe because of the amount of the chemical detected in tissue and blood samples. “If, as some evidence indicates, humans metabolize BPA more rapidly than rodents,” wrote study author Laura Vandenberg, a developmental biologist at Tufts University in Boston, “then human daily exposure would have to be even higher to be sufficient to produce the levels observed in human serum.”

The CDC data shows that 93 percent of 2,157 people between the ages of six and 85 tested had detectable levels of BPA’s by-product in their urine. “Children had higher levels than adolescents and adolescents had higher levels than adults,” says endocrinologist Retha Newbold of the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, who found that BPA impairs fertility in female mice. “In animals, BPA can cause permanent effects after very short periods of exposure. It doesn’t have to remain in the body to have an effect.”

But experts are split on the potential health hazards to humans. The Food and Drug Administration has approved its use and the EPA does not consider it cause for concern. One U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) panel agreed, but another team of government scientists last year found that the amount of BPA present in humans exceeds levels that have caused ill effects in animals. They also found that adults’ ability to tolerate it does not preclude damaging effects in infants and children.

“It is the unborn baby and children that investigators are most worried about,” Newbold says, noting that BPA was linked to increased breast and prostate cancer occurrences, altered menstrual cycles and diabetes in lab mice that were still developing.

Fred vom Saal, a reproductive biologist at the University of Missouri–Columbia, warns that babies likely face the “highest exposure” in human populations, because both baby bottles and infant formula cans likely leach BPA. “In animal studies, the levels that cause harm happen at 10 times below what is common in the U.S.” says vom Saal, who also headed the NIH panel that concluded the chemical may pose risks to humans.

Amid growing concern, Rep. John Dingell (D–Mich.) chairman of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, has launched an investigation into BPA, sending letters last month to the FDA and seven manufacturers of infant products sold in the U.S. requesting information on any BPA safety tests as well as specific levels in the baby goods. The companies that make Similac, Earth’s Best and Good Start have already responded, confirming that they coat the inside of their cans with BPA but that analyses did not detect it in the contents. They also emphasize that FDA has approved BPA for such use.

“Based on the studies reviewed by FDA, adverse effects occur in animals only at levels of BPA that are far higher orders of magnitude than those to which infants or adults are exposed,” says FDA spokeswoman Stephanie Kwisnek. “Therefore, FDA sees no reason to ban or otherwise restrict the uses now authorized at this time.”

FDA first approved BPA as a food container in 1963 because no ill effects from its use had been shown. When Congress passed a law—the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976—mandating that the EPA conduct or review safety studies on new chemicals before giving them the nod, compounds like BPA were already on the market. Therefore, they were not subject to the new rules nor required to undergo additional testing unless specific concerns had been raised (such as in the case of PCBs). “The science that exists today supports the safety of BPA,” ACC’s Hentges says, based largely on research his organization has funded.

But other studies since 1976 have shown that small doses (less than one part per billion) of estrogenlike chemicals, such as BPA, may be damaging. “In fetal mouse prostate you can stimulate receptors with estradiol at about two tenths of a part per trillion, and with BPA at a thousand times higher,” vom Saal says. “That’s still 10 times lower than what a six-year-old has.” In other words, children six years of age were found to have higher levels of BPA’s by-product glucuronide in their urine than did mice dosed with the chemical that later developed cancer and other health issues.

Further complicating the issue is the stew of other estrogen-mimicking chemicals to which humans are routinely exposed, from soy to antibacterial ingredients in some soaps. The effects of such chemical mixtures are not known but scientists say they may serve to enhance the ill effects of one another. “The assumption that natural estrogens are somehow immediately good for you and these chemicals are immediately bad,” Belcher says, “is probably not a reasonable assumption to make.”

The chemical industry argues that unless BPA is proved to have ill effects it should continue to be manufactured and used, because it is cheap, lightweight, shatterproof and offers other features that are hard to match. “There is no alternative for either of those materials [polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins] that would simply drop in where those materials are used,” Hentges says.

Not so, says vom Saal, who notes that there are plenty of other materials, such as polyethylene and polypropylene plastics, that would be fine substitutes in at least some applications. “There are a whole variety of different kinds of plastic materials and glass,” he says. “They are all more stable than polycarbonate.”

Concern over BPA is not confined only to the U.S. Japanese manufacturers began to use natural resin instead of BPA to line cans in 1997 after Japanese scientists showed that it was leaching out of baby bottles. A subsequent study there that measured levels in urine in 1999 found that they had dropped significantly.

A new E.U. law (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances, or REACH), which took effect last year, requires that chemicals, such as BPA, be proved safe. Currently, though, it continues to be used in Europe; the EFSA last year found no reason for alarm based on rodent studies. European scientists cited multigenerational rat studies as reassuring and noted that mouse studies may be flawed because the tiny rodent is more susceptible to estrogens.

For now, U.S. scientists with concerns about BPA recommend that anyone sharing those worries avoid using products made from it: Polycarbonate plastic is clear or colored and typically marked with a number 7 on the bottom, and canned foods such as soups can be purchased in cardboard cartons instead.

If canned goods or clear plastic bottles are a must, such containers should never be microwaved, used to store heated liquids or foods, or washed in hot water (either by hand or in much hotter dishwashers). “These are fantastic products and they work well … [but] based on my knowledge of the scientific data, there is reason for caution,” Belcher says. “I have made a decision for myself not to use them.”

Courtesy: Scientific American


Filed under: Article of the Week, ,

Book of the week


To Sir with Love


E. R. Braithwaite

(Library Call No.823  BRA-T)

To Sir, With Love is a 1959 autobiographical novel by E. R. Braithwaite set in the East End of London. The novel is based on true events concerned with Braithwaite taking up a teaching post in a school there. The novel was made into a film in 1967.

 Plot summary

Ricardo Braithwaite, a British Guiana-born communications engineer, comes to Britain in 1939 for post-graduate studies, but enlists in the RAF. Braithwaite has long been an admirer of the British tradition. After being demobilized from the service, he is unable to find work in his profession due to inherent and institutional racism, and is advised to look at teaching as a career. He is accepted and assigned to a tough school in London’s East End, where teachers come and go frequently and the pupils are mostly rebellious and unwilling to learn.

After several false starts, Braithwaite starts to gain the confidence of the pupils, as well as his fellow teachers. He institutes a code of discipline based on the assumption that his charges are emerging adults and should be treated as such. Before long they are much more responsive in class and prove to be very interested in learning. Braithwaite must also deal with a crush on him by student Pamela Dare and assorted incidents threatening his tenure at the school. He is attracted to Gillian Blanchard, another new teacher, and by the end of term, they are deeply in love and plan to marry.

Filed under: Book of the week, ,

Thought for the week


“If you take risks, you may still fail. But if you do not take risks, you will surely fail. The greatest risk of all is to do nothing.”

Roberto Crispulo Goizueta (November 18, 1931October 18, 1997) was Chairman, Director, and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of The Coca-Cola Company from August 1980 until his death in October 1997.

Under the direction of Goizueta, investors saw The Coca-Cola Company become a top US corporation. He is attributed to invigorating The Company with a global vision. In the process, he created more wealth for shareholders than any other CEO in history.

Filed under: Snippets

Cyber Quiz



1. Josh Silverman is the new CEO of which eBay property?

2. About what did Google co-founder Sergey Brin say recently: “The idea of seeing these rovers on the moon and returning after 40 years…faster than the national programs, it’s really exciting.”?

3. Which three philanthropic units have put up $17 million to fund small and medium-size enterprises in India?

4. Name the new physical fitness product that Nintendo will launch in the US on May 19.

5. Who has been blamed for knocking off YouTube completely on February 24 between 10:48 a.m. and 12.51 a.m. PT?

6. Name IBM’s latest mainframe that is faster and has three times the data-juggling memory of the z9 introduced on February 26.

7. Who has decided to acquire Getty Images for about $2.4 billion and make the seller of stock photography a privately owned company?

8. Bain Capital Partner’s $2.2-billion bid with China’s Huawei Technologies to buy which famous company was nipped recently?

9. Intel’s first Core 2 Duo processor with three dual-core banks that is to replace Tigerton, a 65-nanometer, four-core Xeon processor, is called…?

10. What is ‘Morph’, launched on February 25.


1. Skype

2. The Google Lunar X Prize.

3. Soros Economic Development Fund, Omidyar Network and

4. The Wii Fit.

5. Pakistan Telecom.

6. z10

7. Hellman & Friedman.

8. 3Com

9. Dunnington

10. It’s a joint nanotechnology concept developed by Nokia Research Centre and the University of Cambridge.

Filed under: YW-Cyber Quiz, , ,


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