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First Chapters of New Class V & VIII NCERT Textbooks

Class V


Math Magic-V












(For more downloads please click on the “downloads” link on the left openpages section)

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Career in Geophysics

Career Opportunities in Geophysics

Geophysics, a branch of Earth sciences, is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods, especially by seismic, electromagnetic, and radioactivity methods. The theories and techniques of geophysics are employed extensively in the planetary sciences in general.

As the name implies, geophysics involves the application of physical theories and measurements to discover the properties of the earth. The discipline dates to antiquity, mainly as a scientific approach to earthquake prediction (a problem still unsolved), but major progress began in the late 1500s with initial work in such areas as magnetism and gravity. Tremendous improvements in instrumentation in the early years of the 20th century generated rapid progress in geophysics and ultimately led, in the 1960s, to the theory of plate tectonics.

Plate tectonics, the study of the interior structure of the earth, and such related areas as global and regional processes are known collectively as solid earth geophysics. The sub discipline known as exploration geophysics involves the use of geophysical theory and instrumentation to locate petroleum and other mineral sources. Unlike solid earth geophysics, exploration geophysics generally concentrates on finding lateral heterogeneities in a relatively small part of the earth’s crust.

Geophysics has increased dramatically man’s ability to exploit natural resources. Human senses cannot quantify, or even detect many physical phenomena (e.g., magnetism). Humans cannot detect variations in the earth’s gravitation field of one part per million, but modern gravity meters can (in fact, to 0.02 parts per million or better). Seismology, the primary method of petroleum exploration, requires exact timing and recording of very low-amplitude vibrators, vibrations (or shaking) that is far below that which a human would sense.

The earliest use of geophysics in India can be traced to Colonel William Lambton, who suggested a survey in 1799 which ultimately resulted in a geodetic network to study the earth’s ellipticity. Gravity fields has been studied in India since 1830s when Col. George Everest, the then Surveyor General of India carried out precise measurements of the great arc established around 77°30”E longitude and discovered difference between geodetic and astronomical measurements of latitude between Kalina and Kalianpur.

In 1955, Oil and Natural Gas Division was created in GSI. The division became a directorate and subsequently a commission, in 1959. Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) in 1957, started gravity and magnetic data acquisition in most of the basins of India on regular grid. ONGC used Russian and American made instruments.

Geophysics for oil exploration was used first in 1923 by Burman Oil Corporation (BOC) in the Indus Valley using a Torsion balance. Electrical surveys were first carried out in Nellore District and later in Singhbhum for copper in 1933 by Ms/. Piepmeyer and Kelbof. The credit of first geophysical survey by an Indian goes to late Shri M.B.R. Rao when in 1937 he carried out electrical surveys for sulphide ore deposits in Mysore. During the war between 1939-45, Mysore Geological Department with Shri. M.B.R. Rao was the only organization carrying out geophysical work using self-potential and resistivity surveys.

Geophysical Education in India
Major Institutions which have been teaching Geophysics in India since 1949 are: Andhra University, Wallair, Benaras Hindu University, Varanasi, I.I.T. Kharagpur, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, University of Roorkee and Osmania University, Hyderabad.
Geophysics education was started in India almost simultaneously at Andhra University, (AU) and Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1949. The Andhra University started courses leading to B.Sc. and later to M.Sc. degrees in the disciplines:
a Meteorology and Oceanography
b. Physics of the Earth’s interior.
Initially the courses were of 2 years duration, which were upgraded to 3 years in 1955. Prof. N.K. Sen was the first Head of the department during the period 1949-52. In 1978. The Andhra University started a two years M.Sc. course in Marine Geophysics. At BHU, Geophysics teaching was started as a part of the Geology Department in 1949, when Prof. Rajnath was the Head of the Department. Later (1964) Geophysics got separated and Prof. H.S. Rathor was the first Head of the Department. At present specialization in Exploration Geophysics (3 years M.Sc. course) as well as Meteorology is being offered.
In 1951 the Dept. of Geology and Geophysics was established at the Indian Institute of Technology (I.I.T.) Kharagpur. Initially the department offered a 3 years integrated course in Geology and Geophysics. In 1957, postgraduate courses of one-year duration (DIIT) as well as a two-year course in M.Sc. in Geophysics were introduced. The later is still continuing.
At the University of Roorkee (UOR), 3 years M. Tech. course in Geophysics was started in 1969, as a part of the Geology department, under the leadership of Prof. R.S. Mittal. At Osmania University Hyderabad, teaching of Geophysics was started in 1965, when a 3 years. M. Tech course was introduced. Under Indo-Soviet bilateral agreement (1966) the Dept. of Geophysics at Osmania received a considerable technical and manpower assistance from the Soviet Union; In 1969 the Center of Exploration Geophysics (CEG) was established at the University. Core Courses and Specialization At present all the Departments of Geophysics are teaching courses such as Numerical Analysis, Communication Theory, Electrical and Electromagnetic Methods of Prospecting, Signal Processing. Computer Programming, Well-Logging, Seismic, Gravity and Magnetic Methods of Prospecting, Mining Geophysics, and Petroleum Exploration.

The Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad is offering a specialized course in Petroleum Exploration leading to M. Tech. Degree. Some of the departments are offering specialized courses (as options) in different subjects such as Meteorology, Marine Geophysics, Seismology and Earth’s Interior, Geoelectricity, Geomagnetism, Remote Sensing, Environmental Geophysics, Advanced Hydrology etc. Almost all the departments of Geophysics have well qualified staff, laboratories as well as computer facilities.

Careers in Geophysics

Geophysicists are involved in field investigation; laboratory studies and experiments; data collection from instruments placed below the earth’s surface and from satellites hundreds of kilometers above the surface; data processing and analysis using some of the world’s most potent supercomputers; and drilling wells thousands of meters deep.

The long-range forecast for employment opportunities for geophysicists are very good, particularly since exploration geophysics degrees incorporate diverse fields of study and practical field experience. Exploration for coal, petroleum, minerals and water, concern about the environment, and the disposal of hazardous waste are just a few of the challenging areas which will require the skills of trained geophysicists for many years to come.

The oil and gas industry has traditionally been a big employer of geophysicists in general, and seismologists in particular. The job market tends to fluctuate rapidly in this field, but there is a potential for high salary. Employers tend to prefer students with a Master’s degree, but may hire those with only a BS and then support the student’s future education.

Environmental consulting companies are often keen to hire geophysicists because of their quantitative background. This can be useful in modeling the subsurface flow of contaminated water, for instance. This job market is subject to economic fluctuations as well, but has long term stability because companies must continuously adhere to laws and governmental regulations concerning the environment.

Various private consulting companies also exist for performing verification seismology and estimating seismic hazard. These firms are common outlets for students with advanced degrees in seismology.

In India ONGC and NGRI mainly employs Geophysicist. The Oil and Natural Gas Agency Ltd., ranks as the Numero Uno Oil & Gas Exploration & Production (E&P) Company in Asia, as per Platts 250 Global Energy Companies List for the year 2007 is the main employer of Geophysicist in India. The National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) was established under CSIR in 1961 at Hyderabad with the mission to be the premier geoscientific organisation in India. Over the last three and half years , it has established an enviable reputation with its excellent research programs and developments in earth sciences that have provided the benefit of its scientific and technological prowess for the well being of the people of the country.

The United States Geological Survey commonly hires geophysicists to study and help mitigate hazards from earthquakes and volcanoes. Although many people hired by the USGS have advanced degrees, there are opportunities for those with only undergraduate degrees. Two of the national nuclear weapons labs, Los Alamos National Labs, and Lawrence Livermore National Labs, commonly hire geophysicists to work in verification seismology. In this field, seismic data from around the world are continuously monitored for evidence of nuclear weapons tests. The labs pay very high salaries and provide many opportunities for student internships. We have recently had three SLU undergraduates participate as interns at national labs.

The U.S. Military does hire geophysicists in various capacities, and the individuals need not be actual members of the armed services. One example is the Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) in Melbourne, Florida. Here geophysicists contribute to monitoring the world for clandestine nuclear weapons tests using techniques developed to study earthquakes. A second example is the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), located in Hanover, New Hampshire. Here geophysicists use seismic methods to increase battlefield awareness.

The U.S. Military does hire geophysicists in various capacities, and the individuals need not be actual members of the armed services. One example is the Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) in Melbourne, Florida. Here geophysicists contribute to monitoring the world for clandestine nuclear weapons tests using techniques developed to study earthquakes. A second example is the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), located in Hanover, New Hampshire. Here geophysicists use seismic methods to increase battlefield awareness.

A geophysics degree is a great choice for someone wanting to be a high-school math or science teacher. It provides a sound general background in applied math, electricity and magnetism, heat flow, and elasticity, and it also provides expert knowledge about volcanism, earthquakes, plate tectonics, and the solar system.

For those interested in teaching at the college level, a PhD in geophysics is required; however, the SLU undergraduate program is specifically designed for students who wish to pursue an advanced degree in geophysics. Guidance on applying to and selecting graduate schools is commonly provided by the faculty. Graduate school in geophysics is generally free; institutions commonly waive tuition and provide students with stipends of 15-20K per year while pursuing their studies. It is important to note that an advanced geophysics degree is also beneficial in many non-academic career paths (as noted above).

(The author is Geologist and working as Project Scientist in Jharkhand Space Application Centre, Ranchi. )

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colouring book for children


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Cyber Quiz


1. Which search engine, which was bought for $1.85 billion in early 2005, is owned by InterActiveCorp?

2. How many Microsoft Technology Centres are there around the world?

3. In which Asian country have Microsoft and HP, the world’s top software and PC companies, respectively, decided to set up a new technology centre?

4. Name the journalist who has authored The Search about Google and was a co-founder of the magazines Wired and The Industry Standard?

5. John Lilly is the CEO of…?

6. Name Nintendo’s new game for the Wii console where many of its popular characters are pitted against each other in frenetic free-for-all action.

7. Expand FLOSS.

8. Which Indian is the international and managing editor of First Monday, ‘the peer-reviewed journal covering Internet economics, law and technology’?

9. How much data can a double-sided dual layer DVD disc hold?

10. If IE uses the term ‘Temporary Internet Files’, what does Firefox use?



2. 16

3. Taiwan

4. John Battelle.

5. Mozilla

6. Super Smash Bros. Brawl.

7. Free/Libre/Open Source Software.

8. Rishab Aiyer Ghosh.

9. 15.9 GB.

10. ‘Cache’

Courtesy:Business Line

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Thought for the Week

The greatest discovery of my generation is that a human being can alter his life by altering his attitudes of mind.

William James

US Pragmatist philosopher & psychologist (1842 – 1910)

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Young World Quiz (Dated April 04, 2008)



1. Why was the “Druk Phuensum Tshogpa” party in the news on March 24?

2. Which legendary sportsperson wrote the following: My Cricketing Life (1938), Farewell to Cricket (1950) and The Art of Cricket (1958)?

3. Which Biblical patriarch was also known as Israel?

4. As of 2006-2007, which club holds the record for the most wins in an EPL season?

5. What was the nationality of the famous painter Jan Vermeer?

6. What is the biggest operational difference between a tortoise and a turtle?

7. Which telecom giant gets its name from a river in Finland?

8. How many stars on a table tennis ball indicate that it is of the highest quality?

9. Which famous cartoon ‘pair’ have had the Latin names Birdus Tastius and Poultrius Devourius?

10. In the Mauryan empire, who succeeded Ashoka the Great?

11. Which Indian actress’ paternal grandfather played cricket for two countries?

12. What is dvimudrakaara in Carnatic music?

13. How is red kidney beans referred to in Indian cooking?

14. Which dance form is performed in front of the Kalivilakku?

15. What was the subject of the world’s first jigsaw puzzles?


1. It won the first democratic

elections held in Bhutan

2. Sir Donald Bradman;

3. Jacob

4. Chelsea (38 wins);

5. Dutch

6. The former cannot swim or

float on water;

7. Nokia

8. Three;

9. Road Runner and

Wile E. Coyote;

10. Dasaratha

Maurya (after half-brother Kunala became blind);

11. Soha Ali Khan; 12. A composer who has used two kinds of ‘mudras’ in his


13. ‘Rajma’

14. Kathakali; 15. Maps.

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Kadammanitta Ramakrishnan


Kadammanitta Ramakrishnan (M. R. Ramakrishna Panikkar) (March 22, 1935March 31, 2008), popularly known as Kadammanitta, was an Indian poet. He was born in Kadammanitta province of Pathanamthitta district, Kerala. His childhood experiences, especially the Patayani songs, imparted strong influence in his literary work. With his powerful and mind provoking poems he became one of the rebellious voices in modern Malayalam literature. More than anything, it was his style of reciting his own poems in a powerful and efficient manner that made him darling of many progressives. He was awarded the Kerala Sahithya Academy award in 1982.

Ramakrishnan was born to Meletharayil Raman Nair and Kuttiyamma. He was influenced by the traditional religious art form of Patayani even from his childhood. After his degree studies, he went to Kolkata, and then reached Chennai. He was employed with the Postal Audits and Accounts department in 1959. He worked in Thiruvananthapuram from 1967 till his retirement in 1992.

Ramakrishnan’s poem ‘Njan’ was published in 1965. His first book was published by Kerala Kavitha Granthavari in 1976. There are more than 75 books to his credit.

Noted works

  • Kurathi
  • Kadinjool Pottan
  • Misrathalam
  • Mazha Peyyunnu Maddhalam Kottunnu
  • Kadammanittayude Kavithakal
  • Vellivelicham
  • Sooryasila


  • Kadammanittayude Kavithakal- Asan Prize 1982, Kerala Sahithya Academy1982 Award
  • Abudhabi Malayalam Samajam Award
  • New York Malayalam International Foundation Award
  • Muscat Kerala Samskarika Kendram Award

During his college days, he was involved with the student federation as well as communist party. In 1992 he became the vice president of Purogamana Kala Sahitya Sangham (Progressive Association for Art and Letters), and in 2002 its president. In 1996, he was elected to Kerala state legislative assembly from Aranmula constituency in Pathanamthitta district.


Ramakrishnan died on March 31, 2008 in a private hospital in Pathanamthitta.

Filed under: Author of the week,

Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction


Prize history

In January 1992, a group of men and women involved in publishing – journalists, reviewers, agents, publishers, librarians, booksellers – met to decide if there was any way to widen the net and to try to introduce a prize that would be less traditional and that would put readers at the centre.

We were concerned that many of the biggest literary prizes often appeared to overlook wonderful writing by women. Since prizes are one key to bringing writers to readers’ attention, we thought that both male and female readers might be missing out on fantastic novels by women that they’d really enjoy.

After a period of research, the committee started to draw up rules and think about the difficult issue of money.

We approached Orange in autumn 1995, having already secured endowment of the prize money itself and a work of art – the Bessie – to be presented to each year’s winner, in recognition of the generosity of the anonymous donor.

Of that original committee, four women are still involved: Honorary Director and author Kate Mosse, agent Jane Gregory, publisher Susan Sandon and Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction Project Director Harriet Hastings.

Orange – with the flare and innovative approach to investment in the arts in Britain, which has characterized all their cultural partnerships since then – decided to sponsor the Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction, attracted as much by the educational and lifelong learning initiatives that were planned to run parallel to the main prize. Over a matter of weeks at Christmas 1995, arrangements were made.

The prize was announced at the ICA in January 1996 and, after five months of hectic journalistic attack and counter-attack, the first Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction was awarded to Helen Dunmore in May for her outstanding A Spell of Winter.

Since then, the Prize has established itself as a highlight of the literary calendar, with news of our longlists, shortlists and winning books eagerly anticipated by male and female readers alike

Kate Mosse, Co-Founder & Honorary Director the Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction, author of Labyrinth and Sepulchre.

2008 longlist

Anita Amirrezvani The Blood of Flowers Review
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Stella Duffy The Room of Lost Things Virago
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Jennifer Egan The Keep Abacus
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Anne Enright The Gathering Jonathan Cape
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Linda Grant The Clothes on Their Backs Virago
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Tessa Hadley The Master Bedroom Jonathan Cape
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Nancy Huston Fault Lines Atlantic Books
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Gail Jones Sorry Harvill Secker
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Sadie Jones The Outcast Chatto & Windus
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Lauren Liebenberg The Voluptuous Delights of Peanut Butter and Jam Virago
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Charlotte Mendelson When We Were Bad Picador
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Deborah Moggach In the Dark Chatto & Windus
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Anita Nair Mistress BlackAmber
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Heather O’Neill Lullabies for Little Criminals Quercus Books
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Elif Shafak The Bastard of Istanbul Viking
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Dalia Sofer The Septembers of Shiraz Picador
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Scarlett Thomas The End of Mr. Y Canongate
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Carol Topolski Monster Love Fig Tree
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Rose Tremain The Road Home Chatto & Windus
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Patricia Wood Lottery William Heinemann
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World Health Day, 2008

World Health Day 2008: protecting health from climate change

World Health Day, on 7 April, marks the founding of the World Health Organization and is an opportunity to draw worldwide attention to a subject of major importance to global health each year. In 2008, World Health Day focuses on the need to protect health from the adverse effects of climate change.

The theme “protecting health from climate change” puts health at the centre of the global dialogue about climate change. WHO selected this theme in recognition that climate change is posing ever growing threats to global public health security.

Through increased collaboration, the global community will be better prepared to cope with climate-related health challenges worldwide. Examples of such collaborative actions are: strengthening surveillance and control of infectious diseases, ensuring safer use of diminishing water supplies, and coordinating health action in emergencies.

Aims and objectives of World Health Day 2008

The objective of World Health Day 2008 is to catalyse public participation in the global campaign to protect health from the adverse effects of climate change. WHO aims to put public health at the centre of the UN agenda on climate change.

This is an opportunity for the international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and governments as well as WHO to:

  • Establish links between climate change and health and other development areas such as environment, food, energy, transport;
  • Hold events/activities in countries to publicize issues related to the impact of climate change on health;
  • Involve as wide a spectrum of the world population as possible in efforts to stabilize climate change;
  • Create advocacy campaigns for generating momentum that compels governments, the international community, civil society and individuals to take action;
  • Protect poor and vulnerable populations from the effects of climate change, especially in Africa.

Goals for World Health Day 2008

  • Raise awareness and public understanding of the global and locally relevant health consequences of climate change.
  • Advocate for interdisciplinary and intersectoral partnerships from the local to international level that seek to improve health through rapid deployment of mitigation strategies to stabilize climate change and development of proactive adaptation programmes to minimize health impacts.
  • Generate effective actions by local communities, organizations, health systems and governments to reduce the impact of climate change on health through urgent application of mitigation and adaptation techniques.
  • Demonstrate the health community’s role in facing the challenges globally and in regions, countries and communities.
  • Spark commitment and action among governments, international organizations, donors, civil society, businesses and communities (especially among young people) to anchor health at the heart of the climate change agenda.

Key messages for World Health Day 2008

Health is one of the areas most affected by climate change – and it is being affected now

The science is clear. The earth is warming, the warming is accelerating, and human actions are responsible. If current warming trends remain uncontrolled, humanity will face more injury, disease and death related to natural disasters and heatwaves; higher rates of foodborne, waterborne, and vector-borne illness; and more premature deaths and disease related to air pollution. Moreover, in many parts of the world, large populations will be displaced by rising sea level and affected by drought and famine. As glaciers melt, the hydrological cycle shifts and the productivity of arable land changes. We are beginning to be able to measure some of these effects on health even now.

The health impacts of climate change will hit the poor hardest

The physical effects of climate change will vary in different geographical locations. The human health impacts from climate change are further modified by such conditions as level of development, poverty and education, public health infrastructure, land use practices and political structure. Initially, developing countries will be hit the hardest. Countries with high levels of poverty and malnutrition, weak health infrastructures and/or political unrest will be the least able to cope. Moreover, if we fail to address climate change and its effects on health, we risk jeopardizing even further our ability to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

Traditional public health tools are important components of effective response to climate change

Clean water and sanitation; safe and adequate food; immunization; disease surveillance and response; safe and effective disease vector control; and disaster preparedness are all critical components of public health practices that are also adaptations to climate change. These programmes need to be strengthened globally with special concentration of effort in high-risk locations and populations in order to prevent climate-related injury, disease and death.

Cross-sector, interdisciplinary partnerships are necessary to meet this global health threat

Climate change is wide ranging, and effective adaptation will require the building of partnerships to leverage the expertise of government agencies, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, industry and professional groups and local communities. Decisions affecting urban planning, transport, energy supply, food production, land use and water resources affect both climate and health. Collaboration across all these sectors is needed to find the innovative and effective solutions that will stabilize climate and protect health.

Action must begin now to protect health by applying both adaptation and mitigation

Scientific uncertainty persists about the possibility and timing of abrupt and catastrophic climate change if temperatures continue to rise. This makes it urgent for action to begin now to stabilize the climate through strong and effective mitigation undertaken simultaneously with adaptation activities to prevent increases in foreseeable climate-related illnesses. Full participation of the health sector in national and international processes for mitigation and adaptation to climate change is essential.

 For Mor:


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NCERT Text Books

You will get all NCERT textbooks

except the new books for Class V and VIII

Online Textbooks



For New Textbooks of Class V and VIII(Chapter-wise)

Click here

For chapterwise class V & VIII textbooks click the ‘downloads’ link on the left sidebar

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Reading4Pleasure School 2020

Reading 4 Pleasure School 2020 Award


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