Library@Kendriya Vidyalaya Pattom

Where Minds meet and Ideas pop up !

HOTS Study Materials for Class X and XII

 

XII Study Materials (HOTS)-All Subjects

 

X Study Materials (HOTS)-All Subjects

 

Courtesy: ZIET Mysore

Filed under: Downloads, , ,

Swine Flu India: Website of the Week

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This website has an interesting story behind its creation.

For India centric information on the latest pandemic “Swine Flue” it is a must visit.

Congrats the young minds behind the screen.

Filed under: Website of the week, , , ,

Harry Potter Birthday Celebration: Competition Results

Competition on writing story idea for

 the NEXT Harry Potter Book

(06-08-2009)

S.No.

Position

Name, Class & Div

  1.  

I

Salini Johnson,  XI A

  1.  

II

Diwas  Mehta,  IX A

  1.  

III

Nima K. Saji,  VIII C

 

Writing Birthday wishes to

Harry Potter competition

(3-5/ 08/2009)

S.No.

Position

Name, Class & Div

  1.  

I

Mahima, Renjini , Neethu, IX C

  1.  

II

Ayisha Sahu, VI C

  1.  

II

Salini Johnson, XI A

  1.  

III

Goutham B, X B

  1.  

III

Goyathri XI A

 

 

Filed under: Winners of library competitions

Swine Flu: Guidelines for schools and colleges by Ministry of Health and Family welfare

Ministry of Health & family welfare has issued guidelines for schools and colleges mainly in Mumbai, Pune, Maharashtra and Delhi after the recent outbreak of swine flu H1N1 virus

Government of India
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare
Directorate General of Health Services
(Emergency Medical Relief)

GUIDELINES FOR SCHOOLS/COLLEGES/INSTITUTIONS ON INFLUENZA A/H1N1

There have been some cases of Influenza A H1N1 virus among students and staff in certain schools, primarily in Delhi,Mumbai, Pune and other parts of Maharashtra. There has been considerable speculation over the need for closure of schools to control the outbreak. This matter has been considered by the Joint Monitoring Group in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. All schools and colleges are advised to observe the following guidelines for managing cases of infection of Influenza AH1N1.

(i) Any student or staff member showing flu like symptoms such as fever, cough, running nose and difficulty in breathing should be allowed to stay at home for a period of 7 to 10 days.

(ii) Educational institutions should not insist on production of medical certificate by the student/staff.

(iii) Educational institutions should monitor the health status of such students/staff who might have come in contact with a suspected case of Influenza AH1N1 to see whether they develop flu like symptoms. In case they do so, they should be allowed to stay home, as outlined at (i) above

(iv) In case of students staying in Hostels, the educational institutions would not only monitor the health status of the students, but also that of care providers. It has to be ensured that the care providers wear face mask and wash hands regularly. It might not be advisable to send the boarders back to home, as it would spread infection further.

(v) Educational institutions are further encouraged to report such cases to local health officers for further monitoring.

(vi) Given the current magnitude of the spread of AH1N1 infection and the fact that the current virus is fairly mild, closure of educational institutions on account of any student/staff member falling ill with flu like symptoms is not recommended.

(vii) In the first place, the schools should discourage the excursions of the students to the affected countries.

(viii) In case if the students had proceeded to affected countries on unavoidable tours, then on their return, if some students show flu like symptoms of fever, sore- throat , cough , body ache, running nose, difficulty breathing etc. they should be advised to abstain from attending school and be allowed to stay at home for a period of 7 to 10 days.

Courtesy:Ministry of Health & Family Welfare http://mohfw.nic.in/main/main.html

Symptoms of Swine Flu

The symptoms of swine flu are usually like those of regular seasonal flu and include:

  • headache
  • chills
  • cough
  • fever
  • loss of appetite
  • aches
  • fatigue
  • runny nose
  • sneezing
  • watery eyes
  • throat irritation
  • nausea and vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • in people with chronic conditions, pneumonia may develop

 

Precautions Against Swine Flu

Good standard flu prevention techniques are recommended to protect yourself against swine flu:

  • Get a regular seasonal flu vaccination. It might not help against this specific strain, but it won’t hurt.
  • Wash your hands frequently with soap and hot running water. If hot water is not available, use an alcohol-based hand gel.
  • When you cough and sneeze, cover your mouth and nose. Wash your hands afterwards.
  • Avoid being near others who might be sick.
  • Stay home if you are sick, to avoid affecting others.
Precautions for Travelers
  • Before you travel, find out what vaccines you will need and where to get them. Visit your family doctor or a travel health clinic at least six weeks before your departure date.
  • If you get sick when you are travelling, seek medical assistance.
  • If you are sick when you return to Canada, or have been near someone who is, you must tell a customs or quarantine office, who will decide if you need further medical assessment.
  • If you get sick after you return to Canada, see a health care provider. Be sure to tell him/her the countries you visited, if you were sick while away and any medical care or treatment your received.

Courtesy:www.about.com

Preparing for a Flu Pandemic

What a Flu Pandemic Means to You

By Kristina Duda, R.N., About.com

Updated: July 13, 2009

Do you know what to do in the case of a flu pandemic? Most people alive today have never seen a true global outbreak of a disease like the flu. The last major flu pandemic was in 1918, and it killed millions of people. While the thought of that seems pretty much incomprehensible today, it could still happen.

While getting a flu shot every year is a great way to prevent the flu, it may not help in a flu pandemic situation. When a pandemic occurs, the strain of flu will be severe and spread rapidly. It may be difficult to produce a vaccine for that particular strain quickly enough to immunize people against it. That is why it is important to take other measures to protect ourselves against a flu pandemic.

Right now, the World Health Organization considers us to be in a Phase 6 pandemic alert level which means we are currently experiencing a worldwide pandemic. This particular pandemic is being cause by the novel H1N1 swine flu.

So what should we be doing? There are a few simple steps that we can all take to be sure we are prepared for a flu pandemic:

Keep clean
Washing your hands is the single best way to prevent the spread of any type of infection. Make sure you do it properly and often. Other simple ways to prevent the spread of infection include using a tissue when you cough or sneeze, and staying away from people who are sick. More Flu Prevention Tips

Stock up on supplies
There is a high likelihood that normal life could be disrupted in a true pandemic, so making sure you have a two-week supply of food, water and medical supplies for your family is important. In a true pandemic situation, many people could be sick, causing schools, businesses and public transportation to be closed or disrupted, limiting your ability to purchase new (and necessary) items.

Know your community’s plan
Many cities and communities, and even schools and businesses, have plans in place for a flu pandemic or other public health emergencies. Knowing the plan ahead of time helps everything run more smoothly and ensures you won’t be caught not knowing what to do in case of an emergency.

Although the possibility of a flu pandemic may be hard to imagine, it is a very real possibility and one we should prepare for. To learn more, the CDC has provided some great information about how to prepare for a flu pandemic and what your state is already doing.

 

Filed under: Snippets, , ,

Website of the week : Shashi Tharoor

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Visit the website of the State Minister of External Affairs, MEA,Shashi Tharoor.

The website is enriched with Web 2.0 tools such as twitter and blog.

Contact details are also given.

Filed under: Website of the week

Space Junk

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Junky Halo: This computer generated image from NASA shows the objects in low Earth orbit. Only about 5 percent of the objects are functional satellites; the rest are junk.

Earth is being engulfed in a dense cloud of hazardous debris that won’t stop growing.

By Fred Guterl | NEWSWEEK

Published Aug 1, 2009

From the magazine issue dated Aug 17, 2009

Cosmos 2251 was an ordinary satellite designed to transmit signals across the vast Russian landmass. Launched in 1993, it would appear every 90 minutes or so over the northern skies, relay electronic blips of information among a network of satellites and ground stations like a hockey player passing the puck, and disappear over the southern horizon.

Iridium 33, launched for Motorola in 1997, did something similar, though it took a slightly different orbit that brought it closest to Earth during its pass over North America. For years the two satellites circled the planet, minding their own business, never coming within a thousand kilometers of one another.

Then something happened to Cosmos. It may have sprung a small leak; perhaps it struck a tiny asteroid or a piece of debris. Nobody knows for sure, but for one reason or another, Cosmos drifted off course. T. S. Kelso, an aeronautics expert at Analytical Graphics, which provides satellite-tracking services to NASA, noticed that the orbits of Cosmos and Iridium were bringing the two satellites closer to each other all the time. In February he issued a warning that they would pass within a kilometer of one another. He was right. On Feb. 10, Motorola lost track of Iridium‘s signal. Over the next few days, Kelso and others surmised that what many had feared for years had finally come to pass: two intact satellites had collided head on.

The consequences go far beyond merely the loss of two pieces of property. Each satellite weighed more than half a metric ton and was moving at 7.5 kilometers per second. The resulting explosion was catastrophic, generating a massive cloud of cosmic debris—perhaps 100,000 pieces of junk bigger than one centimeter in diameter, estimates David Wright, a space expert at the Union of Concerned Scientists. In one stroke, the accident increased by nearly a third the number of stray objects in the crucial 700-to-900-kilometer band known as low Earth orbit (LEO). The junk cloud will eventually disperse around the entire planet, like a shroud.

The event served as a wake-up call to space planners. Insurance rates for the $18 billion worth of active commercial satellites now in orbit have ticked upwards by 10 to 20 percent since the accident. Governments, too, have grown to rely on networks of satellites to gather intelligence, direct weapons systems, forecast climate and weather changes, monitor agriculture, and operate communications and navigation systems. Experts calculate that debris will now strike one of the 900 active satellites in LEO every two or three years. For the first time, junk is the single biggest risk factor to equipment in some orbits. Among the orbital threats are two former Soviet nuclear reactors. Even the International Space Station may one day be at risk, as debris slowly descends to its 350-kilometer orbit.

Many experts now believe that even if all space littering were to stop completely, the number of stray objects would continue to increase for centuries. The reason: debris is now so dense that objects will continue to crash into each other, creating even more objects, expanding the rubbish cloud geometrically. "We’ve been saying for years that these things are going to happen," says Nicholas Johnson, head of NASA’s Orbital Debris Program Office. "Until they happen, it’s hard to get people’s interest."

NASA engineer Don Kessler predicted the current situation with uncanny accuracy back in 1978. At the time, rockets carrying astronauts or communications satellites would discard upper stages like empty beer cans, often without having completely burned up their fuel. Several rockets exploded spontaneously in orbit, with no immediate consequences except to add to the orbiting debris. Each time an astronaut lost a bolt or a wrench, the object would take its place in the debris cloud. The Soviet Union may have been the most egregious polluter. In the 1970s and ’80s, it launched 32 radar satellites, designed to track the positions of U.S. Navy ships, each powered by its own nuclear reactor.

Kessler ran the calculations, and the results came as a surprise. When one object slams into another, he found, they splinter into hundreds of pieces, each moving like a projectile at high speed. "Everybody had had this concept, probably from science fiction, of things floating together in space," he says. "People just hadn’t thought about it." By about 2000, he predicted, collisions between satellites would start to outpace other forms of space accidents.

To avert what came to be known in the trade as the Kessler Syndrome, NASA formed its Orbital Debris Program Office, made Kessler the head, and gave him a staff of 20 or so engineers and scientists to tackle the problem. The group, headquartered at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, led a quiet and successful effort to reform the more wasteful practices of spacefaring nations. Now, discarded rocket stages are routinely angled to disintegrate in the atmosphere, or at the very least they’re left with empty fuel tanks.

As Kessler and his team worked against the clock to slow the accumulation of debris, the cloud continued to expand. The Soviets tried ejecting the liquid metal at the cores of its nuclear satellites in the hope that the radioactive droplets would burn up harmlessly upon reentering the atmosphere; instead the liquid hardened into 100,000 or so metal balls, each too small to detect but big enough to cause significant damage to other satellites. In 1991, Cosmos 1934 hit a piece of junk that had previously broken off Cosmos 296. In 1996, France’s Cerise satellite struck a discarded Ariane rocket stage. Junk struck a U.S. weather satellite in 1997 and a Russian satellite in 2002. Discarded U.S. and Chinese rocket stages collided with each other in 2005. In 2007, in separate collisions, the Meteosat 8 weather satellite and NASA’s UARS satellite were knocked out of their orbits. Even so, for a while the total number of objects in the sky seemed to be leveling off, appearing to undermine Kessler’s forecasts, until the China incident.

China’s medium-range missile took off from its Xichang space center without incident on Jan. 11, 2007. It climbed to about 850 kilometers, the typical altitude of U.S. intelligence satellites (which is probably not a coincidence). The missile’s lower stages dropped away to burn up in the atmosphere, leaving the "kill vehicle" to continue on to its target: a defunct Feng Yun weather satellite.

The engineering was flawless. The missile blew the satellite to bits—2,500 of them, each larger than 10 centimeters, according to the experts who keep count. The explosion increased orbital debris in LEO by about 40 percent. What Beijing hoped would be an impressive display of military prowess instead made China the world’s biggest space litterbug. In one move it undid a decade of diplomatic progress in slowing the buildup of debris.

Even if the opprobrium heaped on China is enough to deter more anti-satellite missile tests, the future seems destined now to conform to the Kessler Syndrome, as the Iridium-Cosmos incident suggests. At present 750,000 pieces of man-made junk greater than one centimeter in diameter—about the size of a marble—are thought to be orbiting the planet. (If you include smaller objects, which can still cause damage because of their great speeds, the figure climbs to millions.) Half these objects can be found in LEO, which also contains about half the world’s active satellites.

The China debacle, followed by the Iridium-Cosmos crash, galvanized NASA, the European Space Agency, and the United Nations, which have since held meetings on what steps might be taken to curb collisions and protect satellites. Shielding a satellite’s delicate electronics might fend off some objects smaller than one centimeter, but it won’t work against bigger objects. A better option might be to give satellites the capability to steer, but that would require equipping them with additional fuel, making them a lot heavier and more expensive to launch. It would also require better tracking of space objects. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network currently uses a combination of radar and optical telescopes around the globe to keep tabs on objects greater than five to 10 centimeters, periodically updating the position of each one. Even so, it can manage only about 13,000 objects. And the dynamics of orbiting flotsam and jetsam are complicated; the calculations in predicting any collision are likely to be off by hundreds of meters. A satellite could use up a lot of fuel steering so wide a berth around a threatening hunk of junk.

Many engineers are beginning to think that the only way to reverse the Kessler Syndrome will be to start actively removing junk from orbit. There is no shortage of ideas for doing so. For small and medium-size objects, engineers are noodling the idea of building lasers with beams powerful enough to "push" objects into higher orbits, where they’re less likely to collide with satellites. (Eventually they’d come drifting back down, but that would be a problem for future generations.) One method to remove bigger, more threatening objects might be to send up some kind of spaceship to capture them one at a time and cart them to a lower orbit, where they would burn up harmlessly in the atmosphere. Another idea is to extend a tether from a space ship, grab hold of a piece of junk, and yank it down out of orbit. Either way, chasing down enough objects to make a difference would call for an enormous expenditure of rocket power. "Gravity," says Kelso, "is the big challenge." Until somebody finds a way to overcome that fundamental force, it looks as though we’re just going to have to put up with the accidents.

© 2009

Courtesy: NESWEEK

 

Filed under: Snippets

Independence Day Book Exhibition

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Independence Day Book Exhibition

On Freedom struggle and freedom fighters
Date: 10-15 August 2009

Visit the library to meet the Great minds!

Filed under: Exhibitions,Displays,

Shadows across the playing field : 60 Years of India-Pakistan Cricket

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Shadows across the playing field : 60 Years of India-Pakistan Cricket

by

Shashi Tharoor and Shaharyar Khan

As its title suggests, the book is all about cricket between the two neighbouring countries and knowing the two authors, there will be lots of vignettes and well, the odd “cricket is a bridge for peace” comment. Knowing the authors, we can also be sure of some brilliant writing. We are lining it up for review.

Cricket fans of the school is waiting for the book!!!!

 

Read a news item published on “Mid Day” here.

Shashi Tharoor’s romantic cricket journey

By: Clayton Murzello

Minister of State for External Affairs, Dr Shashi Tharoor’s cricketing journey has been a romantic one

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DR Shashi Tharoor has not watched a cricket match in Pakistan, yet he has co-authored a book on India-Pakistan cricket. But not even a cynical view of this irony can prevent one from being convinced that the Minister of State for External Affairs is a cricket nut.
He has met the biggest of names during his travels as a diplomat, but his Friday meeting with present and former cricketers at the release function of his book Shadows Across the Playing Field was so memorable that it was quickly posted on Twitter.
During his chat with commentator Harsha Bhogle at the launch on Friday, Tharoor showed that he had a deep love for the willow game, developed in an era of simple dreams and pleasures. Unfortunately, his co-author Shaharyar Khan couldn’t make it to Mumbai; he wouldn’t miss the Ashes for anything.
In February 1967, Tharoor watched Ajit Wadekar flay a formidable Mysore team to score a Ranji Trophy triple-century at the Brabourne Stadium. Wadekar was among the audience on Friday.

Way back then
Tharoor proudly claimed that he wrote about Sachin Tendulkar in the late 1980s in the Club Cricketer magazine in England, after Sunil Gavaskar had talked to him about this young gun who could become a great. Tharoor told a few of us how he wrote that Gavaskar had led very poorly during the home series against David Gower’s Englishmen in 1984-85.
The editor of the magazine he was writing decided to amplify things after Tharoor filed in his "tough but fair" piece. The next issue rolled out with the headline: "OUT! Is Gavaskar the worst captain India’s ever had?" Naturally, it created a sense of apprehension when he came face to face with Gavaskar. After all, he did not write what the headline said. The name of the author just didn’t ring a bell, "it sprang", but Tharoor stressed Gavaskar took it sportingly.
If he admired Gavaskar "the cricketer, the batsman and the man", he regretted the lack of opportunities the talented Surinder Amarnath got. And his view that India would have made an effective one-day team had limited-overs cricket been played in the 1960s, is interesting.

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Style and Kunderan
He loved Budhi Kunderan and remembered an incident during the 1964 Test against England in Mumbai. Kunderan followed up a six with a four, and then went for another big hit to be caught by John Price. As the fielder set himself for the catch, Kunderan threw his bat in the air, caught it and then straightaway headed to the pavilion. Some style that! Tharoor remembered it all, including how the England team members were laid low by illness. Hanumant Singh substituted for them and saved some runs near the boundary and was at the receiving end of a ‘traitor’ chant. Later in the series, Hanumant scored a hundred on debut to end Tharoor’s displeasure.

Now, the tough talk
As a minister now, he has to talk tough. When does he think India and Pakistan could resume cricketing ties?
Not until "Pakistan really gives us what we are repeatedly asking for: credible action to dismantle the infrastructure of terrorism from which these (November 2008) attacks were launched."
If and when things improve on either side of the border, the cricketing world can be assured that there will be a credible voice to help decide on when to switch to a "let’s play" mode.

Courtesy: http://www.mid-day.com

 

Meet the Author

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Filed under: Book of the week, , , ,

Cyber Quiz

 

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Questions

1. Which telecommunications giant has picked up the wireless assets of bankrupt Nortel Networks for $1.13 billion?

2. In the context of 4G wireless technology, expand LTE.

3. In the context of Google, what is commonly called ‘Omaha’?

4. According to YouTube watchers, what is the number of YouTube video views per day: 403 million, 817 million or 1.2 billion?

5. Which cyber-giant has agreed to acquire the popular Xoopit?

6. Who has announced two open-source initiatives — Open Source Media Framework (to create sophisticated media players to run flash presentations) and Text Layout Framework (to help developers add advanced typography and font layouts to flash apps)?

7. Scott Thompson is the CEO of…?

8. Which browser-maker’s proprietary Web server service is called Unite?

9. What is the significance of the San Francisco Metreon mall in the Microsoft timeline?

10. Which online vendor’s shoe and handbag retail site is called Endless.com?

Answers

1. Ericsson

2. Long Term Evolution.

3. Google Update, the software installer and auto-updater for Windows.

4. 1.2 billion!

5. Yahoo!

6. Adobe

7. PayPal

8. Opera

9. It had the only Microsoft retail outlet to date, which closed in November 2001.

10. Amazon

More Stories on : Cyber Quest

Courtesy: V V Ramanan, Business Line

Filed under: YW-Cyber Quiz,

Quiz Time

Questions

1. In which U.S. city was President Barack Obama, celebrating his birthday on this date, born in 1961?

2. What has India’s first indigenously built nuclear-powered submarine been christened?

3. After which mythical bird is the most recent spacecraft to land successfully on Mars named?

4. The famous romantic poet who addressed the skylark as ‘Hail to thee, blithe Spirit!’ was born on this day. Name him/her.

5. Which planet was subjected to a vast cosmic collision that left a dark scar the size of the Earth on its surface recently?

6. Which Central Asian nation, in an ambitious plan to help plant life bloom and attract migratory birds, channelling water to a 770 square miles man-made lake in the Karakum Desert?

7. What do the initials C.S. stand for in C.S. Lewis?

8. What famous online site did Jeff Bezos found?

Photo : AFP

Happy Birthday : In which city was he born?

9. In the Donkey Kong series of video games, name the villain shaped like an obese anthropomorphic crocodilian.

10. In the context of cattle, what are rumen and omasum?

11. What weapon does the human in the Oscar statuette hold?

12. In air force slang, what is a ‘laundry bag’?

13. What is the first name of the literary butler Jeeves?

14. In which famous cricket ground would bowlers bowl from the Members End and Great Southern Stand End?

Answers:

1. Honolulu
2. INS Arihant
3. Phoenix
4. Percy Bysshe Shelley
5. Jupiter
6. Turkmenistan
7. Clive Staples
8. Amazon.com
9. King K. Rool
10. Two of the four compartments of the stomach
11. Sword
12. Parachute
13. Reginald
14. The Melbourne Cricket Ground.

Courtesy: V V Ramanan, The Hindu

Filed under: Young World Quiz,

Swine Flu, Influenza A(H1N1)

 

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What is the new influenza A(H1N1)?

This is a new influenza A(H1N1) virus that has never before circulated among humans. This virus is not related to previous or current human seasonal influenza viruses.

How do people become infected with the virus?

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The virus is spread from person-to-person. It is transmitted as easily as the normal seasonal flu and can be passed to other people by exposure to infected droplets expelled by coughing or sneezing that can be inhaled, or that can contaminate hands or surfaces.

To prevent spread, people who are ill should cover their mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, stay home when they are unwell, clean their hands regularly, and keep some distance from healthy people, as much as possible.

There are no known instances of people getting infected by exposure to pigs or other animals.

The place of origin of the virus is unknown.

What are the signs and symptoms of infection?

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Signs of influenza A(H1N1) are flu-like, including fever, cough, headache, muscle and joint pain, sore throat and runny nose, and sometimes vomiting and diarrhoea.

Why are we so worried about this flu when hundreds of thousands die every year from seasonal epidemics?

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Seasonal influenza occurs every year and the viruses change each year – but many people have some immunity to the circulating virus which helps limit infections. Some countries also use seasonal influenza vaccines to reduce illness and deaths.

But influenza A(H1N1) is a new virus and one to which most people have no or little immunity and, therefore, this virus could cause more infections than are seen with seasonal flu. WHO is working closely with manufacturers to expedite the development of a safe and effective vaccine but it will be some months before it is available.

The new influenza A(H1N1) appears to be as contagious as seasonal influenza, and is spreading fast particularly among young people (from ages 10 to 45). The severity of the disease ranges from very mild symptoms to severe illnesses that can result in death. The majority of people who contract the virus experience the milder disease and recover without antiviral treatment or medical care. Of the more serious cases, more than half of hospitalized people had underlying health conditions or weak immune systems.

Most people experience mild illness and recover at home. When should someone seek medical care?

A person should seek medical care if they experience shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, or if a fever continues more than three days. For parents with a young child who is ill, seek medical care if a child has fast or labored breathing, continuing fever or convulsions (seizures).

Supportive care at home – resting, drinking plenty of fluids and using a pain reliever for aches – is adequate for recovery in most cases. (A non-aspirin pain reliever should be used by children and young adults because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome.)

Use of antiviral drugs against influenza A(H1N1)

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For what purposes can antiviral drugs be used against influenza A(H1N1)?

So far most people who have contracted the new A (H1N1) virus have experienced influenza-like symptoms (such as sore throat, cough, runny nose, fever, malaise, headache, joint/muscle pain) and recovered without antiviral treatment.

Antiviral drugs may reduce the symptoms and duration of illness, just as they do for seasonal influenza. They also may contribute to preventing severe disease and death. Influenza A (H1N1) is a new virus and only a small number of people with the infection have been treated for it with antiviral drugs. WHO is in touch with public health authorities and clinicians in affected countries and is gathering information about how effective the drugs are.

To which antiviral drugs does this influenza virus respond?

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There are two classes of antiviral drugs for influenza: inhibitors of neuraminidase such as oseltamivir and zanamivir; and adamantanes, such as amantadine and rimantadine. Tests on viruses obtained from patients in Mexico and the United States have indicated that current new H1N1 viruses are sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors, but that the viruses are resistant to the other class, the adamantanes.

Could the virus become resistant to oseltamivir and zanamivir?

Resistance can develop to antiviral drugs used for influenza. Therefore, WHO and its partners are monitoring antiviral drug resistance.

Under what circumstances should antiviral drugs be administered?

Antiviral drugs are to be used according to national pandemic influenza preparedness plans. Public health authorities in some countries have decided to treat patients likely to have this disease as a part of public health measures.

Where antiviral drugs are available for treatment, clinicians should make decisions based on assessment of the individual patient’s risk. Risks versus benefits should also be evaluated on a case by case basis.

Should I take an antiviral now just in case I catch the new virus?

No. You should only take an antiviral, such as oseltamivir or zanamivir, if your health care provider advises you to do so. Individuals should not buy medicines to prevent or fight this new influenza without a prescription, and they should exercise caution in buying antivirals over the internet.

Warning on purchase of antivirals without a prescription, including via the Internet [pdf 35kb]

What is WHO doing about getting antiviral drugs to countries as preparation for a pandemic?

WHO’s first priority is to provide an emergency stock of antiviral drugs to countries that have no or insufficient stock of the drugs and lack the capacity to procure these drugs themselves.

WHO is also working with Member States, donors and other groups that have stockpiles and are willing to share these with WHO for distribution to countries in need.

Which drug will be provided, and how much of it does WHO have available?

WHO had a global stockpile of approximately 5 million adult treatment courses of oseltamivir. Part of this stockpile has already been distributed through the WHO Regional Offices, which are handling allocation and distribution. WHO is currently distributing the remaining 3 million adult treatment courses of this stockpile to developing countries in need.

WHO continues to assess needs and to work with manufacturers to secure more donations of antivirals. More antiviral drugs will be distributed once these donations are received.

Which countries will receive the drug, and how will they be selected?

WHO has arranged the first deployment of antiviral drugs from the WHO stockpile to 72 countries. Priority was given to vulnerable countries, taking into consideration national manufacturing and procurement capacity. As necessary, other countries will be supported through regional office stockpiles.

What if the initial emergency deployment turns out to be inadequate?

WHO is in discussion with manufacturers regarding the potential need for scaling up production. It is WHO’s understanding that manufacturers have plans for producing large numbers of treatments quickly.

WHO will work on behalf of its Member States to secure further antivirals as needed, either through donations or purchase at the lowest possible price.

How it spreads ?

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The safety of pork

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Is it safe to eat pork and pork products?

Yes. influenza A(H1N1) has not been shown to be transmissible to people through eating properly handled and prepared pork (pig meat) or other products derived from pigs. The influenza A(H1N1) virus is killed by cooking temperatures of 160°F/70°C, corresponding to the general guidance for the preparation of pork and other meat.

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The five keys to safer food

Five keys


– Keep clean
– Separate raw and cooked
– Cook thoroughly
– Keep food at safe temperatures
– Use safe water and raw materials


:: Briefing note on the Five Keys [pdf 180kb]
This note gives an overview of the Five Keys to Safer Food Programme, from the development of the message to implementations in countries.

:: Five keys to safer food poster
Introduced in 2001, the poster, now available in more than 50 languages, is used as the basis for educational projects all over the world.

:: Five keys to safer food manual
The manual elaborates the food safety information provided in the WHO Five keys to safety food poster and suggests ways to communicate the message.

:: The Five Keys to Safer Food Training Programme
Pilot tested in South Africa, Tunisia and Belize, the training programme is being finalized and will be published in June 2009.

:: Building on the Five Keys to Safer Food concept: The 3 Fives
Introduced in 2007, The 3 Fives: Five Keys to Safer Food, Five Keys to a Healthy Diet, Five Keys to Appropriate Physical Activity, were used to promote healthy lifestyles during the Beijing Olympics.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

What can I do?

What can I do to protect myself from catching influenza A(H1N1)?

The main route of transmission of the new influenza A(H1N1) virus seems to be similar to seasonal influenza, via droplets that are expelled by speaking, sneezing or coughing. You can prevent getting infected by avoiding close contact with people who show influenza-like symptoms (trying to maintain a distance of about 1 metre if possible) and taking the following measures:

  • avoid touching your mouth and nose;
  • clean hands thoroughly with soap and water, or cleanse them with an alcohol-based hand rub on a regular basis (especially if touching the mouth and nose, or surfaces that are potentially contaminated);
  • avoid close contact with people who might be ill;
  • reduce the time spent in crowded settings if possible;
  • improve airflow in your living space by opening windows;
  • practise good health habits including adequate sleep, eating nutritious food, and keeping physically active.

What about using a mask? What does WHO recommend?

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If you are not sick you do not have to wear a mask.

If you are caring for a sick person, you can wear a mask when you are in close contact with the ill person and dispose of it immediately after contact, and cleanse your hands thoroughly afterwards.

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When and how to use a mask?

If you are sick and must travel or be around others, cover your mouth and nose.

Using a mask correctly in all situations is essential. Incorrect use actually increases the chance of spreading infection.

How do I know if I have influenza A(H1N1)?

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You will not be able to tell the difference between seasonal flu and influenza A(H1N1) without medical help. Typical symptoms to watch for are similar to seasonal viruses and include fever, cough, headache, body aches, sore throat and runny nose. Only your medical practitioner and local health authority can confirm a case of influenza A(H1N1).

What should I do if I think I have the illness?

If you feel unwell, have high fever, cough or sore throat:

  • stay at home and keep away from work, school or crowds;
  • rest and take plenty of fluids;
  • cover your nose and mouth when coughing and sneezing and, if using tissues, make sure you dispose of them carefully. Clean your hands immediately after with soap and water or cleanse them with an alcohol-based hand rub;
  • if you do not have a tissue close by when you cough or sneeze, cover your mouth as much as possible with the crook of your elbow;
  • use a mask to help you contain the spread of droplets when you are around others, but be sure to do so correctly;
  • inform family and friends about your illness and try to avoid contact with other people;
  • If possible, contact a health professional before traveling to a health facility to discuss whether a medical examination is necessary.

Should I take an antiviral now just in case I catch the new virus?

No. You should only take an antiviral, such as oseltamivir or zanamivir, if your health care provider advises you to do so. Individuals should not buy medicines to prevent or fight this new influenza without a prescription, and they should exercise caution in buying antivirals over the Internet.

Warning on purchase of antivirals without a prescription [pdf 35kb]

What about breastfeeding? Should I stop if I am ill?

No, not unless your health care provider advises it. Studies on other influenza infections show that breastfeeding is most likely protective for babies – it passes on helpful maternal immunities and lowers the risk of respiratory disease. Breastfeeding provides the best overall nutrition for babies and increases their defense factors to fight illness.

When should someone seek medical care?

A person should seek medical care if they experience shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, or if a fever continues more than three days. For parents with a young child who is ill, seek medical care if a child has fast or labored breathing, continuing fever or convulsions (seizures).

Supportive care at home – resting, drinking plenty of fluids and using a pain reliever for aches – is adequate for recovery in most cases. (A non-aspirin pain reliever should be used by children and young adults because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome.)

Should I go to work if I have the flu but am feeling OK?

No. Whether you have influenza A(H1N1) or a seasonal influenza, you should stay home and away from work through the duration of your symptoms. This is a precaution that can protect your work colleagues and others.

Can I travel?

If you are feeling unwell or have symptoms of influenza, you should not travel. If you have any doubts about your health, you should check with your health care provider.

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Courtesy: World Health Organization  http://www.who.int/en/ and other sources

Filed under: Article of the Week, , ,

Sample Question Papers and Marking Scheme for Board Exam. 2010

Class X

Mathematics
Social Science  Paper-1   |  Paper-2-1   |  Paper-2-2
German Language  Paper-1   |  Paper-2

Class XII

Chemistry
Physics
Business Studies –        Paper-I      Paper-II
Economics
Accountancy –        Part-1  |   Part-2  |   Part-3  |   Part-4
History
Psychology
Geography (Theory)
Political Science

 

Courtesy: CBSE, New Delhi

www.cbse.nic.in

Filed under: Downloads, , ,

Ghostwriting ?

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For Authors, Ghostwriting Offers Solvency, Stability

by Lynn Neary

August 4, 2009

Courtesy: www.newsweek.com 

 

[A ghostwriter is a professional writer who is paid to write books, articles, stories, reports, or other texts that are officially credited to another person. Celebrities, executives, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, magazine articles, or other written material. In music, ghostwriters are used in film score composition, as well as in pop music such as Top 40, country, and hip-hop. The ghostwriter is sometimes acknowledged by the author or publisher for his or her writing services.- wikipedia]

 

When Grant Blackwood got out of the Navy in 1987, he decided he wanted to write thrillers. He knew it might be awhile before he could support himself by writing, but in the meantime he was willing to do whatever it took — including chopping wood and driving a limousine — to make his dream come true.

Twelve years later, Blackwood had his first novel published and figured he was home free. But he quickly learned that becoming a successful novelist is like a series of graduations with no guarantee of what happens afterward.

"You decide to sit down and write the book, and you do it — that’s a little graduation. You finish the book — that’s a little graduation. You find an agent, you find a publisher — that’s another one," says Blackwood. "After going through all those hurdles, you think ‘OK, I’ve made it. I’ve broken that last wall.’ But the sad truth is you’ve only come up against a bigger wall."

That bigger wall is getting your book sold — and then selling the next one. Jenny Siler, who also writes thrillers, got her career off to a great start when her first novel brought in a $150,000 advance.

"That enabled me to start writing professionally and support myself through my writing," says Siler. "[But] as time went on, my books became more literary and my advances became smaller."

Siler’s most recent advance was $20,000, and though her husband also brings in money and they live modestly, that still isn’t enough to support her, since it takes her between 12 and 18 months to write a book.

So both Siler and Blackwood have chosen to supplement their incomes by turning to ghostwriting.

For Blackwood, the decision came when the sales of his novels started dwindling. After his publisher turned down his fourth novel, Blackwood’s editor promised he’d help him find work.

"It wasn’t more than six months later when he called, and he said, ‘I have this book. It’s perfect for you. It’s right up your alley, and we want to pay you for it,’ " Blackwood says.

The way I look at these ghostwriting and co-writing projects is that the more financial freedom that I have to take some time with my own projects, the better off I’ll be as a writer and an artist.

– Jenny Siler

Blackwood now writes for popular thriller franchises he can’t name. "They give me the characters and the world they live and work in, and I do the rest", he says.

Blackwood has ghostwritten five books, and as much as he likes being paid to write, he admits there are some drawbacks to being a ghostwriter:

"You don’t get credit on the cover. You don’t get royalties," he says. "It’s kind of a contract deal. You write it, you give it to them, and your attachment from there financially ends. And you are not your sole master."

Siler, meanwhile, is working on her first ghostwriting assignment. She got into it after she co-authored a book with art thief Myles Connor. The two worked well together, and Siler got credit for her work. She didn’t expect to do that kind of work again, but then she was offered an interesting and lucrative ghostwriting project she felt she couldn’t turn down.

Although Siler’s own books are fiction, both these projects are nonfiction. And because she is writing about someone’s else’s life, Siler feels she has to put aside her own way of doing things.

"I really feel like it’s important to honor that person’s story," she says. "I mean, I’m there to question the facts and to make sure that everything is factual. But I’m not there to comment. I’m there to portray them as they want to be portrayed."

For now, Siler has put her own writing aside, but she plans to get back to it once the new book is done. She figures she is buying herself some time in the future.

"The way I look at these ghostwriting and co-writing projects is that the more financial freedom that I have to take some time with my own projects, the better off I’ll be as a writer and an artist," she says.

Blackwood isn’t working on his own writing, either. Instead, he has a new book coming out this September, a Clive Cussler novel called Spartan Gold, which he’s getting a co-writing credit for.

Blackwood finds ghostwriting satisfying, but he knows a lot of writers wouldn’t.

"You do have to sacrifice complete control. You do have to be willing to answer to different masters who are sometimes giving you contradictory input. And you have to find that middle ground, and you have to do it in a diplomatic way. And that can be tough for someone who lives their life in a creative way," he says.

Still, both Blackwood and Siler say ghostwriting may not be perfect, but getting paid to write is a pretty good life.

Filed under: Article of the Week,

Deep Joshi wins Magsaysay Award 2009

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Deep Joshi is an Indian social worker and NGO activist and the receipent of 2009 Magsaysay awards announced.He was recognised for his vision and leadership in bringing professionalism to the NGO movement in India.He co-founded an non-profit organisation, Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN) of which he is the Executive Director.

Deep Joshi took his engineering degree from National Institute of Technology, Allahabad and also holds a masters engineering degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a another on management from Sloan School, MIT.

Returning to India, Deep Joshi worked as a Ford Foundation program officer. He has decades of social development work in India and in 1983, also co-founded an non-profit organisation, Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN),that recurits college graduates to do community work.Pradan was also jointly awarded NGO of the Year 2006 at the first ever India NGO Award event.

He also advises the Government of India on poverty alleviation strategies and also was a member of Working Group on Rainfed Areas for the Eleventh Five Year Planning Commission, Govt of India.

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In 2006, Deep received the Harmony Silver Award for his contributions to society.Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation (RMAF) announced Deep among others as winner of 2009 Magsaysay awards.

 

Courtesy: Wikipedia

 

 

Filed under: Article of the Week, ,

Animoto for Education: Website of the week

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This site provides tools for teachers and students to create videos and share it online through mail/blogs/networks.

A handy online facility which will help the class room teaching and make it more live.

Filed under: Website of the week,

Harry Potter Birthday celebrations

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The Library celebrates the birthday of the wizard with three programmes.

  • Say Birthday wishes to harry Potter and get a prize (03-05 August 2009)

Write birthday wishes on the space provided on the Bulletin board fixed outside the library. The best two entries will get prizes.

  • Harry Potter Quiz (04th August 2009)

 

  • Story idea writing contest (06th August 2009)

Suppose you are writing the NEXT (8th) Harry Potter Book. What will be the story ? Write it briefly and get prizes.

 

Filed under: Library activities, ,

School Library Committee 2009-2010

The members of School Library Committee for 2009-2010

Chair Person: Dr. Cicy Roy Mathew, Principal

Member Secretary: Mr. Faisal S.L., Librarian

Teacher Members

  1. Mrs. V.S. Syamala Kumari, TGT(Hindi)
  2. Mrs. V. P.Susheela, TGT(Maths)
  3. Mrs. P. Sheeba, TGT (bio)
  4. Mrs. A. Sheeba, PRT
  5. Mrs. Bindu K.P.Lal, PRT

Student Members

  1. Salini Johnson, XI A
  2. Anjana S., IX A

Filed under: School Library Committee

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Child Line (1098)

CHILDLINE 1098 service is a 24 hour free emergency phone outreach service for children in need of care and protection.

CBSE Toll Free Tele/Online Helpline

Students can call 1800 11 8002 from any part of the country. The operators will answer general queries and also connect them to the counselors for psychological counseling. The helpline will be operational from 08 a.m to 10 p.m. On-line counseling on: counselling.cecbse@gmail.com

S. L. FAISAL
Librarian
Kendriya Vidyalaya (Shift-I)
Pattom
Thiruvananthapuram-695 004
Kerala India

Mail: librarykvpattom at gmail.com