Library@Kendriya Vidyalaya Pattom

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‘What after Plus 2’ an online guide to Courses and Career options after Plus 2

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The Career Guidance cell of the Library of Kendriya Vidyalaya Pattom has launched an online guide consisting frequently updated information about courses and career options which can be selected by students after Class XII (Plus Two).

The website will act as an online window to verified and carefully curated information on courses and career options. It will also showcase news on the activities of the Career Guidance cell of the school.

Visit the site at

Filed under: Career Corner, Snippets

Civil Service Orientation & Talent Development Programme

The NSS Academy of Civil Services, Trivandrum is organizing a 10 Day Civil Service Orientation & Talent Development Programme from 11th to 20th October 2013 (during the Pooja Holidays) at the NSS Academy of Civil Service, Near MG College, Kesavadasapuram, Trivandrum.

Students from Class VIII-XI may register their names for the Programme.


Date & Time : 11-20 October 2013; 09am-01pm (10 Days)

Course Fees : Rs 1000/-

Venue : NSS Academy of Civil Service (NACS), Near MG College, Kesavadasapuram, Trivandrum



Phone: (0471) 254 0200,

94952 45727, 94004 75230

For registration and other details, contact Mr S. L. Faisal, Librarian/ Ms Rekha Rajan, I/C Career Guidance Cell, KV Pattom

Interested students shall submit the registration form (available from the study centre) and remit the course fee at the NSS Academy of Civil Service on or before 10th October 2013.

Filed under: Career Corner, , , , ,

How ready are you for CAT?


CAT is competitive and may be a tough nut to crack. But some strategies like studying the previous year’s question papers, taking mock tests and revisiting specific areas of weakness could help.

Karthi was like a cat on the wall a decade ago, when he saw the question paper for quantitative analysis in the Common Admission Test (CAT) for admissions to the prestigious Indian Institutes of Managements (IIMs) in the country. At best he managed to attempt 12 questions, but was clueless to the rest. Recalling that test, he looks bewildered even now.

“It is not rocket science. From the time I took the test in 1995, the exam has remained the same. Only the difficulty levels go up or down. It is the competition that makes it difficult,” says S. Balasubramanian, Director, T.I.M.E, Chennai Centre. Over two lakh aspirants appear in CAT for 2,500 seats, that is only one per cent enter the portals of the IIMs. With less than two months to go, the candidates should start writing a good number of mock tests.

Aspirants begin preparing for CAT, months or at times a year before the exam. This is not the time to start as it requires phenomenal effort, he says. By now, the aspirants should have completely learnt concepts and started testing their skills. T.I.M.E. conducts tests for those enrolling. Some amount of revisiting specific areas based on the results of the mock tests where they have weakness is necessary, he adds.

“Mock tests really help. I used to take tests every weekend,” says Brijesh Unnithan, a final-year student at IIM-Kolkata. In English, reading up to the mark will get you good scores. The general tendency to read from childhood is the key, he says. In maths, everyone may not be equally good in all areas. Aspirants should identify strong areas in their problem-solving skills and select the questions that can be finished in the quickest time. The score in logical reasoning also plays a pivotal role as each question has five sub-questions and a wrong answer could be a big setback to the final score, he points out.

This year, the CAT will start on October 27 and will go on till November 24, lasting almost a month. The testing window has been increased to 20 days, as the previous year there were glitches when the exam was introduced first time on computers. “Make it a point to go through the past CAT questions. The question papers till 2008 are available in the public domain,” says Vinod Iyer, Associate Vice-President, Career Launcher. Not everyone is in love with the CAT, though. A senior IAS officer, and an IIM-Ahmedabad alumnus, thinks that the CAT pattern is so elitist and skewed that only people educated in good schools in urban environs get to clear the test. Students from rural areas are able to crack IIT-JEE and Civil Services but not CAT to get into IIMs, he says to substantiate his point. The focus on English comprehension, vocabulary, and group discussions help mostly those students with a hold over the English language. CAT-2009 represented the largest format change in testing history (not just in India, but in the world), both in scope and scale. “For CAT2010, we have brought in significant improvements in all facets; be it the registration process, the sale of vouchers, the website and the test conditions” says Himanshu Rai, convenor, CAT 2010. “If you look at the CATIIM website it gives you all information including and not limited to a thorough and detailed registration guide, videos on all aspects of CAT, etc. If the candidates read this guide before getting into the registration process they will be able to do it in less than 15 minutes! The candidate helpline numbers are working for longer hours providing answers in both English and Hindi. We have a longer testing window (from 10 days to 20 days), to facilitate candidates by giving them a wider choice of dates. This year we will be taking control of the centres almost three weeks in advance thus ensuring thorough sanitisation of the labs and venues. Our actions are guided by three mantras: Thorough site readiness ensuring good testing experience, improved service to candidates, and overall enhancement of quality in all our processes.”


B. Aravind Kumar

The Hindu

Filed under: Career Corner

How to be a Data Journalist


The Guardian has a great story today about how to be a data journalist. It’s a timely post. The forces that drive online law enforcement are increasing. It’s affecting the world of cloud computing and the open Web.

The FBI is telling us that they need access to encrypted messages. They want peer-to-peer technology to be outlawed. It’s centralization that they desire, not the chaos of an increasingly fragmented world.

But who is responsible for watching the FBI?

It’s really all of us.

The counterforce is the increasing amount of data available and our ability to access it. Data journalists can shine more sunshine on government than ever before. By explaining and showing what the data means, we can help balance the increasing efforts by the FBI and the Obama Administration to push through technology legislation that would mean onerous requirements for service providers.

The Guardian is a leader in showing people how to do data journalism. The tools they use and the data itself are products of the cloud. The Guardian’s examples help illustrate the ways we can explain complex events such as the conflict in Afghanistan or in examining data from law enforcement organizations such as the FBI.

Wikileaks: Afghanistan

The Guardian put its data journalism techniques to work with the Wikileaks data they received. It included more than 92,000 rows of data.

They built a simple database to search for keywords or events. Through this they generated three key findings:

• Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attacks over time
• Where they happened by region
• Casualties data recorded in the database

This was the result:


How to Do Your Own Data Journalism

That’s international, data-driven reporting at its best. The Guardian is a leader in this field. They are also a leader to show how people can do the same world class work themselves.

Guardian data journalism teacher Paul Bradshaw makes a point that we all face. The amount of data out there is massive. But with the tools available, that data is easler to tackle.

In addition, we have seen over the past several years a convergence of investigative research, statistics, design and programming.

We can’t be experts in all these disciplines. But we can all play a role in what The Guardian outlines as four main parts:

Finding the data. Doing research through Twitter, aggregating RSS feeds or using progamming languages such as MySQL or Python to gather the data.

Interrogating the data. Knowing the jargon can be important to understanding the context of the data.

Visualizing the data. Bradshaw writes: "Visualising and mashing data has historically been the responsibility of designers and coders, but an increasing number of people with editorial backgrounds are trying their hand at both – partly because of a widening awareness of what is possible, and partly because of a lowering of the barriers to experimenting with them."

Mashing it up. Aggregating data from different sourcees and viusualizing it through applications like ManyEyes. Yahoo! Pipes is an application used to aggregate RSS feeds.

More Tools

The remainder of the post goes on to describe the ways tools can be used to do online journalism. We’ll follow up with another post about these tools and how they are being used.

Data journalism seems very relevant in this day and age. More than ever, we need ways to observe and illuminate what is happening, especially as concerns over security and safety have the potential to override the free flow of information that makes the Internet and the cloud so important to society.


By Alex Williams


Filed under: Career Corner, ,

How to face a stress interview


By B.S. Warrier

A stress interview evaluates the ability of a candidate when he/she is deliberately put under severe tension.

A stress interview aims at testing the candidate’s behaviour while he is being deliberately put under severe tension. This evaluates his ability to work efficiently in an atmosphere in which he is tensed up. For example, a marketing professional may have to face offensive behaviour from a rude client. The professional should not misbehave even under such adverse circumstances.

In a stress interview, the interviewer may try to discomfort the candidate in different ways and watch his responses in different situations. It is an evaluation of the job-seeker’s behaviour and emotional stability when put under pressure. Some of the techniques for stress interviews are the following:

Posing a number of questions one after the other in the ‘rapid fire’ style thereby denying breathing time.

Putting a question before the answer to the previous one is finished.

Making irritating or offending remarks while the candidate is answering questions.

Upsetting his mental balance by asking irrelevant personal questions.

Hurling insults or by raising baseless allegations.

The interviewer may deliberately adopt certain irritating styles such as not asking you to sit down when you reach his table for the interview; retracting his hand when you stretch yours for a handshake initiated by him; remaining silent without asking you any question; keeping on poring over your resume without any reaction or comment; avoiding eye contact; constantly interrupting you; sighing when you give a right answer; initiating baseless arguments; using insulting phrases; making comments that unjustly belittles you; keeping a wooden face.

Yet another style may involve a panel of interviewers, asking you questions in a random manner on different subjects. Even before you complete an answer from one member, another member would shoot another question, creating confusion. They would grill you without giving you time for thinking or planning your answers. They may ask you stupid questions as well.

The interviewer may tell you that he does not believe what you have claimed as achievements in your resume, or that you scored high marks in the university examination only by cheating. He may pose a riddle that has nothing to do with your job.

See some samples of irritating questions that may upset you.

Are you not hiding some of you failures from us?

Why do you think that I am a poor interviewer?

You were sacked from your previous job. Are you not trying a cover-up?

How will you react when you are caught swindling out of company cash?

You are unfit for this kind of position. Why don’t you try for something lower?

You are a woman. Is it not a pipedream that you can take up this kind of heavy responsibilities?

Why do you lose your temper frequently?

Are you not too old for this job?

Why should there be stress interviews?

The prospective employer may have different reasons for holding a stress interview. This would help the employer to find out whether the candidate would

wilt under pressure

face adverse situations with courage

maintain high levels of confidence even under stress

handle adversity efficiently

manage difficult situations effectively, without buckling under pressure

keep his equanimity and do only what is right even under duress

speak logically even under pressure

lose his cool and react violently if insulted

You should realise that stress situations are a deliberately planned strategy to test you. If you can keep in mind that all these are in fact harmless tests to unearth your real temperament, you can undergo this exercise with a smile and respond well. The most vital thing is that you should never lose your mental equilibrium. You will be evaluated by the panel, knowing fully well that you are under severe tension artificially created for the trial. No board would announce that you are to face a stress interview. If you smell this possibility, plan your responses appropriately.

Never keep in mind a negative approach, under the impression that the stress interview is a vain and redundant exercise. You can take it as an opportunity to face an interesting challenge. A smile within you and a confident approach are sure to make you win. Never show your frustration. Act as if you take the exercise as a pleasant experience. Keep your sense of humour. Give short answers. Handle the questions with aplomb. Speak softly. Believe in yourself. Keep your confidence at its peak.

There should be nothing abnormal in your behaviour. Be cheerful even when provoked. You should never seem to be nervous. Do not try to win debating points. Do not argue. Do not overreact. Do not take any word or action of the interviewer as a personal insult. If you do not know something, confess your ignorance straightaway. Remember that often the interviewer is not checking the accuracy of your answers, but your behaviour under pressure.

The other view

There is a school of thought that the stress interview is an unnecessary tool for assessment. There is no need of the human resources professionals trying to embarrass or insult the candidates seeking a job. The tool is sometimes misused by some of the HR managers for satisfying their ego . The trauma of the stress interview may de-motivate some brilliant candidates. The stress interview atmosphere may create a master-servant situation that has lost its relevance in the modern employer-employer relationships. An interview may be considered as a two-way traffic where the job seeker is assessing the company, just as the company is assessing the job seeker. A candidate with a sparkling record of integrity and uprightness rightly expecting dignified treatment may be dissuaded by a demeaning approach from the interviewer.

What is given above is only one side of the picture. If you have to face a stress interview, you should know the right strategies to face it.


Courtesy: The Hindu

Filed under: Career Corner

Taiwan Plans to Roll out E-readers in Schools

Dan Nystedt, IDG News Service


Taiwan’s Ministry of Education plans to offer e-readers to schoolkids on the island next year as part of efforts to further digitize schools and promote reading.

The e-readers are part of a five-year, NT$50 billion (US$1.55 billion) budget earmarked for information technology in classrooms. Currently the ministry is reviewing designs for e-readers and doesn’t yet know how many it will purchase for next year, a representative said.

The only e-reader displayed at the Ministry of Education’s booth at the IT Month exhibition in Taipei on Monday was a color e-reader designed by Aiptek International for young children. The Aiptek inColor e-reader has an 8-inch color screen and 1GB of flash memory for storage. It comes with 20 multimedia e-books pre-installed and costs NT$6,900 (US$213) in Taiwan, according to Hsu Fang-chi, a media representative at Aiptek.

The company is planning a touchscreen version of the e-reader. There are already 108 e-books available for the inColor on Aiptek’s Web site. The company offers both English and Chinese-language books.

Currently the inColor is on sale in Taiwan and China, but it can be purchased via Aiptek’s Web site or through representative offices in Europe and the U.S., said Hsu.

This year, the ministry focused on putting digital chalkboards in math, science and language classrooms in Taiwan schools.

The HaBoard interactive whiteboard has an 82-inch touchscreen so teachers can write on them, make changes to images on the screen, or call up further information, said Ivan Huang, a representative of HaBook Information Technology, the maker of the device.

The classrooms making use of the HaBoard also provide touchscreen monitors to groups of kids in each class, usually one screen for every five or six kids, he said. The purpose of the touchscreen monitors is to make the class more interactive, so kids can look up additional information or answer questions about the subject the teacher is currently reviewing.

Each HaBoard costs NT$50,607 (US$1,565) alone, and other devices designed to work with it are also available. One useful device is the AverVision 300AF, an image-capture device that inputs images onto the HaBoard. It comes with a variety of attachable cameras, including a microscope, so kids can see science projects at the cellular level.

The education ministry’s representative said the HaBoard is already installed in schools throughout Taiwan.

Taiwan also has an NT$80 billion budget from a stimulus plan that is meant to battle the global recession and aimed at education. The Intelligent Taiwan budget is aimed at strengthening schools, including by eliminating the gap between rural and urban students as well as the digital divide, the term used to describe differences in learning based on accessibility to computers and the Internet.


Filed under: Career Corner, ,

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A Blog exclusively for Job seekers


JobMob is a free blog that teaches job seekers how to find better
jobs, faster. The blog is filled with straight-talking advice based on
real-world experience with lots of humor thrown in.

Filed under: Career Corner, Career Links, ,

For women and men in white


Nursing abroad as a career


Courtesy: The Hindu

The professional success of even the most competent specialist doctor often requires the support and assistance of skilled nurses and paramedical personnel. Nurses from India have made their mark at the global level in competence and dedication to duty.

There is a huge demand for good nurses in western countries, especially the U.S. The remuneration is handsome. However, those with a basic nursing qualification obtained in India cannot straightaway join the nursing service there.

In the U.S., you have to prove your competence by passing the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Then there is the CGFNS examination, modelled on the lines of NCLEX-RN. Both can now be taken in India.

An important factor is the need for proving your proficiency in the English language, through scores secured in globally accepted tests, such as the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or the International English Language Testing System (IELTS).

Though the medium of instruction in Indian nursing colleges and schools is English, many graduates cannot easily communicate in that language to people from countries such as the U.S. It is, therefore, imperative that nursing students who desire to practise in the West should plan ahead in developing their English language skills to meet the practical demands of working abroad.


The CGFNS International (formerly known as the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools) is an authority on credentials evaluation pertaining to the education, registration and licensure of nurses and other health-care professionals worldwide. It conducts predictive testing and evaluation of nurses trained in various countries, for ensuring their competence and confirming their eligibility for licensure as registered nurses in the U.S.

The three elements for obtaining CGFNS certification are VisaScreen: Visa credentials assessment; certification programme; and credentials evaluation service.

Applicants must have completed Plus Two and passed a government-approved nursing programme of at least two years’ duration. The four-year B.Sc. nursing degree obtained through nursing colleges or the three-and-a-half-year GNM (general nursing and midwifery) diploma obtained through nursing schools and recognised hospitals in India is adequate nursing qualification for appearance in the CGFNS examination and the NCLEX-RN. Also, the candidates should have obtained registration from the nursing council.

The CGFNS requires the nursing diploma/certificate sent directly from the nursing college or school. So also, the registration details should go directly from the nursing council, and not through the candidate.

The qualifying examination measures an applicant’s nursing knowledge based on what nurses must know and do when they practise nursing in the U.S. The foundations of the qualifying examination are based on client (patient) needs. The traditional clinical areas of nursing practice — nursing care of the adult, nursing care of children, maternal and infant nursing, psychiatric and mental health nursing and community health nursing — are covered. The examination ensures that an applicant has the same level of understanding of nursing with various client groups, in various settings, as graduates of U.S. nursing schools have.


The International Commission on Healthcare Professions (ICHP), a CGFNS division, administers the Visa Credentials Assessment Programme for registered nurses who are not U.S. citizens. This certification is essential for applying for a nurse’s visa.

The process comprises four elements: an education analysis; licensure validation; an English language proficiency assessment; and an examination of nursing knowledge.

For confirming nursing knowledge, you must pass the CGFNS qualifying examination or the NCLEX-RN.

You can prove your English language proficiency by securing the required score in TOEFL Internet-based version (iBT) with at least a score of 83 or the IELTS with at least a score of 6.5 in the academic module.

Application procedure

* You complete a Visa credentials assessment application form and submit it along with full payment and your full academic records to CGFNS/ICHP.

* CGFNS/ICHP sends you a permanent identification number.

* You prepare and send a “request for academic records” form to the nursing school where you studied.

* Your school completes the form and returns it by mail to CGFNS/ICHP with your full academic records.

* CGFNS/ICHP notifies your eligibility.

* You prepare and send a “request for validation of registration/license” form to the licensing authority that issued you a registration, including the U.S. Board of Nursing where you passed the NCLEX-RN.

* The licensing authority completes the “request” form and sends it by mail to CGFNS/ICHP.

* CGFNS/ICHP notifies you of insufficient or outstanding documentation, if any.

* You register for TOEFL or IELTS, indicate CGFNS/ICHP as the score recipient, and pass the English proficiency test.

* CGFNS/ICHP receives your TOEFL or IELTS scores and records it in your VisaScreen file, and reviews your eligibility.

All the application forms required are available on the CGFNS web site You can communicate with CGFNS/ICHP using the information provided in the ‘Contact Us’ link on the web site. For sending material by mail, use the address: CGFNS/ICHP VisaScreen: Visa Credentials Assessment, ICHP, 3600 Market Street, Suite 400, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2665, USA.

You should note that your school and the licensing authority have to send your documents by mail to the CGFNS/ICHP and not you. It may be remembered that authorities in the U.S. will insist on the NCLEX-RN qualification for practising as a registered nurse. The CGFNS exam is modelled on the lines of NCLEX-RN. So those who have passed the CGFNS examination can reasonably expect to pass the NCLEX-RN. The conditions for licensure vary from State to State in the U.S. You have to contact the board of nursing in the State where you wish to become licensed.

Certification programme

As mentioned above, there are some differences among the States in the U.S., with regard to the licensure for registered nurses. In most of the States, internationally educated nurses should possess the CGFNS certificate for taking the NCLEX-RN. The application procedure for CGFNS Certification is as follows:

* You complete an application form for the CGFNS certification with appropriate fee.

* CGFNS sends you an identification number and CGFNS official study guide.

* You prepare and send request for validation of registration/license forms to the licensing authority (nursing council).

* You prepare and send a request for academic records form to your nursing college or school.

* CGFNS checks your documents and notifies your eligibility.

* You register for TOEFL or IELTS, indicate CGFNS as the score recipient, and pass the English proficiency test.

* Simultaneously prepare for the CGFNS qualifying examination.

* CGFNS notifies your eligibility and the date and location of the examination.

* You take the examination (administered three times a year in over 45 test sites worldwide), and once a year in select test sites. In India, the usual test centres are Bangalore, Kochi, Delhi and Mumbai.

* CGFNS notifies you of the qualifying examination results.

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Filed under: Career Corner, , ,

Changing trends in Professional Education




Entrance exam season has begun. Plus two students are busy with entrance examinations for the professional courses. They have to write a series of examinations during this summer. There is a growing apprehension among the students and parents regarding the choice of professional courses. Questions like, which course is best , which course has more career potential  are often raised by them. Plus two students with Mathematics and Biology are in a dilemma regarding the choice of medical, engineering or agricultural courses. Moreover reports on impact of economic recession make the issue more complex.

Kerala entrance examinations for Medical, Agricultural and Engineering courses for the current year will be held from 25th to 28th May 2009. Students should not select a course based on the compulsion from the parents. It should not be based on existing vacancies available in the government sector. Try to dream about the research and development that will take place after 4-5 years.  Students’ aptitude and interest must be given adequate weightage.


Medical courses

In Kerala more number of parents are interested to admit their children to medical courses. But the number of medical seats available when compared to engineering are less than 10 percent. So competition is very high. As per WHO recommendations, 500-1000 number of population needs a doctor. But this ratio cannot be achieved easily in the state due to scarcity of doctors. In order to achieve the above status it will take, minimum a decade. Cuba’s achievement in this regard is really commendable in having a doctor per 500 number of population.  Thus it is clear that there is better employment potential for doctors in the state, hence Biology students can give first choice to MBBS course. Moreover potential of doctors in the state will further improve if the concept of family doctor is implemented in rural areas. There exist enough vacancies of doctors in the department of health services.

Dental graduates have only limited number of posts in the government sector. But they can start private clinic under self-employment venture. Recent decision to reduce the duration of the BDS course will affect the career prospects of Dental graduates within the country and abroad. As per the directions of Dental Council of India, the state Government has been compelled to reduce the duration of BDS course to five years with effect from 2008-09. Previously it was four and a half years of study period with one year of internship. With this decision, duration of BDS course will become five years without having internship. During the one-year internship period, the student acquires more skill and confidence to work independently. After completing internship he/she can practise with confidence. While overseas dental education is giving due importance to skill development and hands on training programme with internship and externship in leading hospitals, dental graduates under the new stream without internship will find it very difficult to adjust with the new situation. Recent decision taken by state government to retain internship programme in the state is a welcome suggestion in this regard.
Dentistry is one of the important professional courses having immense career potential in United States and Europe. In USA Dental surgeons are earning more income than any other professionals. In United States patient has to pay huge fee for dental ailments. Now a days more number of dental graduates from India are interested to pursue higher education from USA or UK. During their study period they are preparing for dental licensing examination.  In order to complete the licensing examination successfully, a student must be required to undergo externship in United States/UK under the guidance of a licensed dental practitioner. A student without undergoing internship will find it very difficult to successfully complete the required externship programme and licensing examination.
Ayurveda degree programme BAMS is acquiring momentum in the country and abroad. Now a days people are more interested to pursue ayurvedic treatment than modern medicine for chronic cases. Ayurveda doctors have enough potential in European countries, UK and United states. As part of health tourism this sector can exhibit spectacular growth within the country and abroad.
Homoeopathy is emerging as one of the promising areas in the health sector. Being cost effective, homeopathic treatment can be easily accessible to lower income groups. Government is making all efforts to popularize this system in the state. Homoeopathy is more prevalent in Canada, European countries and United States.

Even though Nursing, BPharm and BSc MLT have been excluded from entrance examination in Kerala this time , these courses have better career potential within the country and abroad. Globally nursing has emerged as one of the key areas generating more employment. Almost all countries are facing scarcity for nurses. Developed countries face difficulty in meeting the ever-growing demand for nurses. Since the demand gap is very high, Indian nursing schools can exploit this situation. International Council for Nurses (ICN) and Florence Nightingale International Foundation have revealed that developing countries can play a key role in reducing this global problem. Potential for nurses are more in USA, England, Canada, NewZeland, Ireland, Switzerland, Scotland, Australia, Wales and in certain African countries. BSc MLT students can start accredited laboratories under self-employment sector. They have umpteen opportunities in Middle East countries and abroad.


Agricultural courses

Basically compared to other courses, agricultural courses are also not free from unemployment. But there is enough potential for pursuing specialization and research abroad. They can choose MBA programme for better career options. They can also join for specialization in Agri business management, supply chain management and retail management at National Institute of Extension Management (MANAGE), Hyderabad or Indian Institute of Managements where almost 100 percent placement is assured. Agricultural graduates can undertake research in agricultural universities. They can apply for agriculture research scientist examinations.

Among agricultural courses Veterinary science, Dairy science, Agriculture and  Forestry have more opportunities under government and private sector when compared to fisheries and agricultural engineering. Veterinary graduates have umpteen number of opportunities in Canada, European Union and United States. Moreover agricultural graduates can specialize in Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, which are having immense potential within the country and abroad.
Engineering courses

In the engineering sector existing priorities must be redefined. Nano technology, Mechatronics and Bioinformatics are emerging as the future promising technological areas. Global economic recession has started affecting some of the potential employment sectors in the country. It has not even spared the IT industry.  In order to overcome this crisis, major IT companies are taking stringent economic measures like freezing of increments, allowances, etc. Moreover they have started retrenching employees with poor work efficiency. Their major objective is to reduce the number of work force. But recruitment will be reduced in the coming years.

During 2007, more than 65 percent recruitment in the IT industry was through campus recruitments. Now it has been reduced to less than 20 percent. As a sequele to retrenchment, IT industries are more interested to select experienced candidates rather than fresh graduates. Satyam scandal has made a black mark on Indian IT industry. It is clear that future may not be smooth for IT industry in the country – at least in the short run.
The major preferences for the students were to join IT; Computer science or related engineering courses till 2008. Of the 30000 Keralites passing out from the engineering colleges of the state or from nearby states, more than 40 percent is from IT related disciplines. Their sole objective is to get in to a pioneering IT company. But the situation is changing day by day. Major new generation courses like Mechatronics, Nano technology, Biomedical science; Bioinformatics, Electronics & Communication, Mechanical Engineering, Dairy technology, Environmental engineering, Maritime engineering and BTech in Fashion Technology are emerging as the major placement oriented courses.  Civil, architecture and Chemical engineering graduates can pursue post graduation abroad for better placements.
In order to overcome the major threats in the employment sector, engineering students should acquire better skills in their respective fields and knowledge on management principles. Recently more number of engineering graduates has started taking MBA from the best business schools within the country and abroad. Industries have started preferring engineering graduates with specialization in management for technical and managerial post.

Now in order to get better placements, students have to face tough competition. Only those with better skill, work experience and specialization can sustain in the job market. NASSCOM has revealed that, more than 75 percent of engineering graduates in the country have poor knowledge and skill. So in the emerging job market, engineering graduates may not get a mere walkover; but an assessment based on work efficiency and performance. So merely joining the course and passing out with low marks will land the students in tears. From the first semester itself they have to work hard and earn good marks.

Filed under: Career Corner, , , ,

Exam watch

•Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training (CIFNET), Kochi, invites applications for admission to four-year Bachelor of Fisheries Science (Nautical Science).

Last date: May 22. ( Phone: 0484-2351610.

•CIFNET offers two-year Vessel Navigator and Marine Fitter Training Programme. Last date: May 29. (

•ER & DCI Institute of Technology has invited applications for admission to M.Tech. VLSI and embedded systems.

Last date: May 7. (

•Kerala Institute of Tourism and Travel Studies (KITTS) offers training for tour guides.

Last date: April 15. ( Phone: 0471-2329539.

•ABV- IITM, Gwalior, invites applications for admission to MBA. Last date: April 9. (

•National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) invites applications for admission to MS (Pharm), M.Pharm., M.Tech. (Pharm) and MBA (Pharm). (

•Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Centre for Biomedical Research under the University of Delhi invites applications for admission to M.Sc.-Ph.D. combined degree in biomedical sciences; M.Sc. biomedical science; and Ph.D. in biomedical sciences. Last date: May 15. (

•Jawaharlal Nehru Scholarship for doctoral studies.

Last date: May 31. email-

•Avinashilingam University for Women invites applications for admission to M.Sc. biotechnology.

Last date: April 30. (

•Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, invites applications for admission to Master of Hospital Administration; M.Sc. in medical technology, pharmacology, biochemistry, medical biotechnology and anatomy.

Last date: April 20. (

•Apply for admission to five-year integrated Master of Science (MS) programmes conducted by IISERs at Thiruvananthapuram, Bhopal , Kolkata, Mohali and Pune. (

•Management Aptitude Test conducted by All-India Management Association.

Last date: April 11. (

•Footwear Design & Development Institute (FDDI), Noida, invites application for admission to PG Diploma Management (footwear technology, creative designing, retail management, leather goods and accessories design and so on). (

Phone: + 91-120-4500195/196.

Courtesy: The Hindu

Filed under: Career Corner,

Politics as a career




This article appeared on

Read about American politics and the career. Think about that in Indian conditions


Behind every great candidate are consultants, often highly paid ones.

January 7, 2005: 5:47 PM EST
By Jeanne Sahadi, CNN/Money senior writer


NEW YORK (CNN/Money) – For those who love politics, there’s nothing like a presidential campaign to get your fill.

But for those who really love politics, there’s nothing like making a career of every campaign season.

In this installment of our ongoing series on interesting six-figure jobs, we take a look at a few political consulting jobs – specifically, pollster, media strategist and opposition researcher.

A survey released last year by the Center for Congressional and Presidential Studies (CCPS) at American University found that roughly 50 percent of those working in political consulting made at least $100,000. Indeed, the potential for stars is to make far more.

This year, nearly half a million people will run for office, but only about 10 percent of the campaigns have professionals working for them, said James Thurber, director of the CCPS. Those campaigns range from the presidential race to large statewide gubernatorial, Congressional and Senate campaigns, as well as mayoral races in some big cities.

Dennis Johnson, associate dean of the Graduate School of Political Management at George Washington University, estimates there are about 7,000 political consultants working today.

To work at many political consulting firms you need two things: a demonstrated love of politics – volunteering and working your way up to paid positions in various campaigns or working on Capitol Hill – and great partisan loyalty.

Not that some consultants won’t switch parties for a job. But if you’re going to work for a Republican consulting firm, it’s best to come bearing your elephant soul. Likewise, if you’re knocking on the door of a Democrat, you’d best have voted for Bill Clinton and meant it.

A love of issue advocacy and crisis management doesn’t hurt either. In between elections, many consulting firms butter their bread with work from corporations, political action committees, unions and even candidates and causes in other countries.


Ed Goeas, president and CEO of Republican polling and strategy firm The Tarrance Group, isn’t getting much sleep these days. When he does catch a few winks, it’s between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. That’s when his team is in the field running polls for the Bush campaign in six states as well as campaigns in other states. He then stays up all night analyzing the data and spends the next morning briefing campaign teams on the results.

The schedule of pollsters and their staffs in the last few months before an election is brutal – often 18 to 20 hours a day, Goeas said. It’s more civilized in the off-season – meaning non-election years.

Goeas’ job involves analyzing polling numbers, helping the campaign develop a strategy based on those numbers and monitoring that strategy.

Of all political consultants, pollsters are most likely to have advanced degrees, since statistics are a heavy component of the job. But Goeas, who worked his first campaign at 12, recalls that when he started working at The Tarrance Group, the firm’s founder told his staff that Goeas got his doctorate on the streets.

The commitment to “the cause,” as Goeas calls it, can be very hard on family life, he said. The reward, however, is in working for and getting people elected who you believe in.

The path to six figures in polling can take eight to 10 years, Goeas estimates, depending on the size of the accounts you manage.

Media strategist

A media strategist oversees how the campaign is presented to the public. That includes everything from helping a candidate hone his or her message and prepare for debate; creating and producing campaign ads; buying and coordinating ad spots across different media; and speech writing.

In deciding whether to work with you, a candidate will look at your win-loss record, how long you’ve worked in the area where he or she is running, and your creative work. Beyond that, “it comes down to the basic: Do they click with you?” said Jim Duffy, a partner in Strother Duffy Strother, a leading media strategy firm for Democrats.

One route to becoming a media strategist is working your way up the ranks of a campaign to the post of communications director or press secretary. The earnings at that level can range from $4,000 a month to $20,000 a month if you’re working on a major statewide race, Duffy said.

That puts you in touch with the media strategists employed by the campaign, and those connections can lead to full-time work in media strategy. A firm like Duffy’s might hire you as an associate for between $50,000 and $100,000 a year. The salary you earn is dependent on your experience and the campaign business you bring with you to manage.

Graduate degrees don’t hurt. “But it’s more about you and your experience, aptitude and who you know,” Duffy said.

During election years, your time between Labor Day and early November isn’t yours. There’s no rest and no weekends, he said.

Besides the long hours, taking the heat is one of the stresses of the job, Duffy said. “If (your media strategy) doesn’t work, they look at you.” They also look at you if something beyond your control goes wrong. Maybe an opponent digs up dirt on your candidate and for one reason or another not of your choosing, your side doesn’t respond quickly. “It’s a classic case of all of a sudden it ain’t a pretty picture any longer,” Duffy said.

Media strategists, Duffy said, can make up to $500,000 a year. Some, Thurber said, can make even more.

Even those who work for B-level or C-level firms, Duffy added, “won’t end up at the poorhouse.”

Opposition researcher

If you like digging up dirt, opposition research may be a field for you.

Opposition researchers find information on the opposing candidate and write it up for the campaign staff in a report – which can run as long as 900 pages, said Jason Stanford, president of the Democratic opposition research firm StanfordEverhart.

More than just detailing the past voting records of the competition, researchers are looking for ways to illustrate and document how the opponent differs from their candidate, and to demonstrate how an opponent’s public record doesn’t necessarily match his or her political rhetoric. For instance, Stanford said, maybe an opponent voted to raise taxes but didn’t actually pay his own property tax.

The key is using public documents to support the case. For most people, finding them can be difficult or slow. The value of an opposition researcher is efficiency and discretion once he finds gold. “I just know how to get it faster and more discreetly. I’m not going to go to a bar and brag,” he said.

Beyond that, Stanford uses the information he finds to help construct political arguments for the campaign. He also helps campaigns strategize how to publicly address any dirt dug up on his candidates.

In the heat of election season, Stanford and his staff might put in 10 to 12 hours a day, six days a week.

Extensive travel is another component of the job. Since he has a good staff, Stanford only travels about one week a month, but it used to be much more. Beyond that, he said, “the isolation is one of the freakiest parts of the job.” Sometimes, he’ll spend whole days in a library, and the first person he’ll speak to is the waiter at dinner.

In terms of earning potential, when you’re just starting out you may make well under $30,000. His first campaign paid him $1,800 a month. But after a number of campaigns, you can make in the low six figures. Indeed, he said, for some, “I don’t think a quarter of a million is out of reach.”  Top of page

Filed under: Career Corner

AIIMS MBBS Entrance, Agriculture (ICAR) Entrance



AIIMS MBBS entrance test

The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, has invited applications for the June 1 entrance examination for admission to the MBBS course starting on August 1.

Those who have passed Plus Two or equivalent examinations with physics, chemistry, biology and English with at least 60 per cent marks (50 per cent for the physically challenged and those belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) in aggregate in these subjects may apply.

Students expecting their class 12 results by July 7 are also eligible. The candidates should be 17 as on December 31, 2009.

Application forms can be obtained from selected State Bank of India branches between January 15 and February 21 on paying Rs.1,000 (Rs. 800 for the physically challenged and those belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes).

In Kerala, the main branch on Mahatma Gandhi Road, Thiruvananthapuram and the branches at Calvethy, Kochi; K.K. Road, Kottayam; and Dharmodayam Building, Thrissur; will distribute forms.

For getting forms by registered post, send a request to the Assistant Controller of Examinations, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi – 110608, so as to reach the addressee on or before February 21.

Enclose an account-payee bank draft for Rs.1,050 (Rs.850) in favour of MBBS Entrance Examination, 2009 payable at New Delhi. Super-scribe ‘Request for Application form for MBBS Entrance Examination, 2009’ on the cover.

The completed applications should reach the examination section of the institute by 5 p.m. on February 27. The admission notice is available on, www.aims.edcu

Agricultural entrance test

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has invited applications for the April 19 All India Entrance Examination for Agricultural Undergraduate Programmes and National Talent Scholarships.

Admission to 15 per cent of the seats in State agricultural universities and all seats in the Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur; the National Dairy Research Institute and the Allahabad Agriculture Institute Deemed University will be based on the rank in this test.

The programmes are B.Sc. courses in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, biotechnology, food science, home science, sericulture and banking and cooperation; the Bachelor of Fisheries Science course; and B.Tech. courses in agricultural engineering and dairy technology.

Those who have passed Plus Two or equivalent examinations with physics, chemistry and biology or agriculture or mathematics with 50 per cent marks in aggregate (40 per cent for the physically challenged and those belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) may apply.

Those appearing for the Plus Two examination in 2009 are also eligible. The candidates should be between the ages of 17 to 23 as on December 31, 2009.

Application forms will be available from January 21 to March 7 at Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, and the Syndicate Bank branch at Kasaragod (1st Floor, M.S. City Centre, Bank Road) for Rs.425 (Rs.225 for those belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and the physically challenged).

For getting application forms by post, send a request to the Controller of Examinations (Education Division), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, KAB-11, Pusa, New Delhi – 110 012.

Attach a demand draft for Rs.450 (Rs.250) drawn in favour of DDG (Education), ICAR, New Delhi, and a self-addressed envelope (without stamps) of the size of 30×25 cm. Applicants should write their names on the back of the draft.

The last date for the receipt of completed applications at this address is March 10. Details can be had from the information bulletin accompanying the application form.

Filed under: Career Corner

Look beyond IIMs


This year about three lakh students would be taking the Common Admission Test (CAT). The total number of seats in all the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) combined hover around 1,600. So, what is in store for the rest of the management aspirants?

Other options

Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT): Test date-November 23. This institute conducts its own entrance test and has two campuses at New Delhi and Kolkata.

Symbiosis National Aptitude Test (SNAP): Test date-December 21. IBS Aptitude Test (IBSAT): Test date-December 21. This test is conducted by ICFAI, for its B-schools.

Joint Management Entrance Test (JMET): Test date-December 14. This examination is conducted jointly by the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore.

Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS-2008): Test date-December 14. The examination is conducted by TISS for admission to its MBA programmes.

Xavier’s Admission Test (XAT): Test date-January 4, 2009. Considered next to CAT and a good score leads to admission in one of the best business schools in India like Xavier Labour Relations Institute, Jamshedpur.

Faculty of Management Studies (FMS): Test date-January 11, 2009. The test is exclusively conducted by Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi, for admission to its programmes.

One can always try the option of MAT (Management Aptitude Test) for admission into good local colleges.

Filed under: Career Corner,


Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance


The Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Examination (popularly known as IIT-JEE or just JEE) is an annual college entrance examination in India. A total of fifteen colleges use JEE as a sole criterion for admission to their undergraduate programs. The fifteen colleges include the seven old and six new (2008) Indian Institutes of Technology, IT-BHU Varanasi, and ISM Dhanbad. Starting in 2007, newly established institutions such as Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs) at Kolkata, Pune & Mohali, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Thiruvananthapuram Kerala and Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology (RGIPT), Raebarely Uttar Pradesh are also admitting students through the JEE (Extended Merit List). The exam is conducted by the various IITs by a policy of rotation. It is one of the toughest engineering entrance exams in the world with a success rate of around 1 in 45. Candidates who successfully pass the IIT-JEE can apply for admission to the BArch (Bachelor of Architecture), BDes (Bachelor of Design), BTech (Bachelor of Technology), Dual Degree (Integrated Bachelor of Technology and Masters of Technology) and Integrated MSc (Master of Sciences) courses in the various institutes. Achieving entrance into an IIT is often considered the pinnacle of achievement for a student of the sciences, and the IITs/IT-BHU/ISM attract most of the brightest students of the nation.

Of the 311,258 candidates who appeared in the examination conducted on April 13, 2008, 8,652 candidates have been declared qualified to seek admission, giving a selectivity of 1 in 36 overall, 1 in 45 for the 6,872 seats in IITs,IT-BHU and ISM and 1 in 56 for the IITs only.

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Current examination format

JEE-2008 was conducted on April 13, 2008 retaining the same pattern as JEE-2007 containing Paper-I & Paper-II (JEE-2007 had two papers of three hours duration each. The two papers each contained maths, physics and chemistry sections (in previous years, there were separate maths, physics and chemistry papers, each of two hours’ duration). The syllabus of the examination is based on topics covered by the CBSE Board Examination (AISSCE) and the ISC Board Examination , though all topics of the AISSCE and the ISC are not included in the JEE syllabus. The pattern of questions in JEE is deliberately variable so as to minimize the chance of students getting selected by cramming up the probable questions. Currently, the examination has objective type question paper for all the subjects and uses machine readable Optical mark recognition answer sheets.

Given the importance attached to the JEE by students all over India, the IITs follow a rigorous procedure when conducting it every year. The exam is set by the JEE Committee (consisting of a group of faculty members drawn from the admitting colleges) under the tightest security. Multiple sets of question papers are framed and the set that is to actually be used on the day of the exam is known to only about five individuals. In the past, the JEE has been noted for originality in its questions.


The JEE has evolved considerably from its initial pattern approximately 50 years back. Initially, there were 4 subjects in JEE, the English language paper being the additional subject. During the period from 2000 to 2005, the JEE also had a screening test in addition to the JEE main examination in order to reduce the load on the JEE main examination by screening only about 20,000 top candidates. In 1997, the JEE was conducted twice after the question paper was leaked in some centres.

In September 2005, an analysis group comprising of directors of all the IITs announced major reforms in JEE, implemented from 2006 onwards. The new test consists of a single objective test, replacing the earlier two-test system. The candidates belonging to the general category must secure a minimum of 60% marks in aggregate in the qualifying examination of the XIIth standard organized by various educational boards of India. Candidates belonging to Scheduled Caste (SC), Scheduled Tribe (ST) and Physically Disabled (PD) categories must secure a minimum of 55% in aggregate in the Qualifying Examination.The introduction of only one stage objective exam instead of two stages and a subjective one has led to decline in quality of students who are selected[citation needed]. This can be well understood by the fact that over one hundred students failed in their Ist year B.Tech exams at IIT Kanpur alone. [1]

In 2008, the director and the dean of IIT Madras called for revamping JEE, saying that the coaching institutes were “enabling many among the less-than-best students to crack the test and keeping girls from qualifying.” They expressed concern that the present system did not allow for the 12 years of schooling to have a bearing on admissions into IITs.[2]

According to the data released by the organizing committee of IIT-JEE, the children of medical professionals had the highest succcess rate in the IIT-JEE (for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008). They were followed by the children of engineers. The maximum number of students taking IIT-JEE are the children of government employees, but they had a much lower success rate.[3]


The number of students taking this examination has increased substantially each year with the JEE-2008 registering about 311,258 candidates. The availability of seats in recent years is as given in table below: [4]

Institute Intake (2003) Intake (2006) Intake (2007) Intake (2008)
IIT Bombay 554 574 574 648
IIT Delhi 552 553 553 626
IIT Guwahati 350 365 365 435
IIT Kanpur 456 555 541 608
IIT Kharagpur 659 895 874 988
IIT Madras 554 520 540 612
IIT Roorkee 546 616 746 884

New IIT’s opened in 2008

IIT Bhuvaneshwar 120
IIT Gandhinagar 120
IIT Hyderabad 120
IIT Patna 120
IIT Punjab 120
IIT Rajasthan 120

Total (IIT’s)

3571 4078 4193 5521
IT-BHU (Varanasi) 568 708 686 766
ISM Dhanbad 444 658 658 705
TOTAL 4583 5444 5537 6992

The age limit for appearing in IIT-JEE is 25 years. For candidates belonging to SC, ST and PD categories, the relaxed age limit is 30 years. Also, starting 2007, a candidate can take the JEE two times at the most. This has been done mainly to reduce stress on students and discourage the concept of “cram schools” — where students are made to memorize all types of possible exam questions. Furthermore, from 2007 on, students who are selected for admission to an IIT cannot attempt the examination again in the future. From 2008 six new IITs have been opened with 120 seats each increasing the total no.of seats to almost 7000.

See also


  1. ^ Eligibility Criteria for the Indian institute of technology JEE on IIT Madras’ Website. URL accessed on 10 April 2006.
  2. ^ D Suresh Kumar. JEE fails to get the best: IIT dons. The Times of India. 31 Jul 2008.
  3. ^ Doctors’ kids have best success rate in IIT-JEE: Report. 30 Sep 2008, 0221 hrs IST, Neha Pushkarna,TNN.
  4. ^ Seats in JEE-2005 on IIT Madras’ Website; all figures from respective year JEE Counseling brochure; url varies every year. URL accessed on 10 April 2006.

External links

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Filed under: Career Corner,

Teaching as a career

Looking for a Career Option in the Field of Teaching ? This section features Teaching as a career option, elaborated with reference to the job profile, personality traits required, the courses and training involved, premier institutions and future prospects.

As this field is so vast having areas of specialisations, different skills and type of training are required for different levels. Areas of specialisation include teaching at nursery schools, middle schools, high schools, colleges, universities, institutes, special schools etc. Each level calls for a different expertise. If you love to be with children, teaching at schools would be a good option, but if you want to be with young adults, it is better to look at the college or university level. Good teachers can bring out the best in every student.

They are the ones who make a difference in the lives of their students. Rousing students from their apathy and watching their curiosity grow is one of the biggest rewards of teaching.

The trick in being a popular teacher – the kind starry-eyed kids in school follow around with adoration writ large on their faces, and in college, seek out for advice, guidance and some simple hand-holding – is identifying yourself with the students. They are the most loved of teachers who climb down from the high perch of authority that their job automatically places them on, and see things from the students’ perspective. And those who are aware of the power to shape lives that has been vested in them, and use it responsibly.

Teaching is a highly noble profession, most suited one especially for women. Teachers are always a boon to society. Through their intelligence, patience and wisdom, they attempt to not only hone the learner’s intellect and aptitude but also, create a well-rounded personality. Teaching has an influence in developing ones mind and character and also gives the satisfaction of having sparked the light of knowledge and dispelled the clouds of ignorance.

This profession requires dedication, perseverance and patience. Knowledge of the subject one is teaching as well as a rich experience in co-curriculars; keenness to take on responsibility; tact; patience and the ability to get along with all kinds of people are essential.

Main reason for opting this career could be interest in the subject, secure professional career and regular annual vacations. It can also be a second career for those who have retired from professional services.

You need to have a blend of mind, patience, confidence, liking for and an understanding of children which is a must. You must have organizing capacity, friendly and helpful nature to enter into this field. Teacher should have the ability to communicate well, to create a liking in young minds even in the case of most boring subjects. She/he should have a deep passion for the subject one handles. Must encourage in students the ability to analyse and think. A teacher must always remember that apart from teaching, it is he/she who shapes a child’s character. Teacher has to be a friend, philosopher and guide to his wards.

Courses in Teaching:

  1. Pre-primary:Most polytechnics and vocational training centres conduct training for pre-school teachers. The preferred eligibility is Class XII with 50% aggregate. Personal attributes are, however, more important. There are montessori teacher training schools which are privately owned in some large cities.


  2. Primary teacher training:Teachers with diplomas in education / Bachelors in education teach the primary classes. Graduates of Home Science also serve as primary teachers


  3. Secondary and senior secondary teachers:Teachers having B Ed Degrees after graduation are called Trained Graduate Teachers (TGTs), after postgraduation they are called postgraduate trained teachers (PGTs). This training is imparted in teacher’s training colleges.


  4. Some universities offer these courses through correspondence:For inservice teachers to get trained. There are contact programmes for giving practical orientation. In 1996, the National council for Teacher Education (NCTE) has regulated the training of teachers. Correspondence/distance education courses are meant for teachers who are currently working.


  5. Lecturers:College lecturers require a good academic record with at least 55% or an equivalent grade at master’s degree level in the relevant subject from an Indian University or a foreign University. The eligibility test for lecturers, National Eligibility Test (NET), is conducted by UGC, CSIR or similar tests accredited by the UGC. The State level test SLET is for appointments within the state. The promotion is based on performance, duration of service, and research publications.


  6. Nursery teachers:Training of 1-2 years at Polytechnics/ Vocational Training Institutes.


  7. After Graduation:(Any school subject), a Bachelors in Education (B Ed) for TGT Grade Jobs


  8. After Postgraduation:(Any school subject), B Ed for PGT grade jobs.


  9. After Postgraduation / M.Phil:Take the NET/ SLET Exam for College Teaching

    Please click here for the list of the Teaching Institutes in India.


    Besides school and college teaching, teachers write course books, work as distance education tutors, conduct tutorial classes and serve as examiners.

    prospects in Teaching:

    1. Play schools
    2. Nursery schools
    3. Primary/elementary schools
    4. Secondary schools
    5. Colleges
    6. Universities
    7. Educational research institutes
    8. Special schools
    9. Self employment by starting institutes/tutorials



    1. Nursery / Primary Schools: Nursery and primary school teachers have a huge responsibility in the sense that, it is what children learn and experience during their early years that shape their views and affect success or failures later in their lives. Thus teachers play a vital role in the social and intellectual development of children. They introduce children to numbers, language, science, social studies as well social interactions. Here games, music, artwork, computers and other tools are used to teach basic skills. While kindergarten teachers deal with children of 3 to 5 years, primary school teachers deal with those of 6 to 12 years.
    2. Secondary Schools: The secondary school teachers instruct students from 8th to 12th standard. Usually they deal with one particular subject in which they specialise. Good base in the subject is a must.
    3. Colleges/Universities: In universities or colleges there are lecturers and professors who specialise in a particular field. They give lectures, guidance and help the students in their academic and research work. Those who have organising ability have a further scope to become a principal, vice-chancellor in the management level.
    4. Special schools: A challenging area in the field of teaching is that of dealing with children having physical and mental handicap and learning disabilities. The work is emotionally and physically demanding which needs a lot of patience. They have to work in close association with parents and medical professionals like speech therapist, physiotherapist etc. It is different from the normal teaching norms as each child needs special care depending on his/her disability.

Filed under: Career Corner,

Careers in Accountancy and Law

Careers after Plus Two

Cost accountancy


In the highly competitive scenario in manufacturing industries, efficiency is the keyword. To attain efficiency, there has to be a multi-pronged approach, an important element of which is harnessing of wealth-generating resources and waging a war against waste. The primary objective is cost reduction.

A significant role in this effort is played by the cost accountant. The services of competent cost accountants are required for analysing each one of the different items that add up to the cost of a product and for identifying ways and means of bringing down expenses.

The realm of the cost accountant spreads to regions beyond costing and maintaining accounts in industrial or business organisations. Owing to his role in the overall management and financial regimen of an industry, he is sometimes referred to as cost and management accountant. The success or failure of business decisions depends to a large extent on the quality of the information made available to the management. This emphasises the value of right cost prescription from the cost and management accountant.

On the strength of professional experience, cost accountants can reach the topmost rungs of the corporate hierarchy. They have opportunities in the public as well as private sectors.

Experienced cost accountants can opt for private practice.

The Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India ( regulates the profession and imparts training to students in the distance mode.

The structure of the training programme comprises three levels – Foundation, Intermediate and Final. The subjects of study are as follows.



Organisation and management fundamentals; accounting; economics and business fundamentals; and business mathematics and statistics



Financial accounting; commercial and industrial laws and auditing; applied direct taxes; cost and management accounting; operation management and information systems; and applied indirect taxes



Capital market analysis and corporate laws; financial management and international finance;

management accounting – strategic management; indirect and direct – tax Management; management accounting – enterprise performance management; advanced financial accounting and reporting; cost audit and operational audit; and business valuation management.

Candidates can join the Foundation course after passing the higher secondary examination. Those who are waiting for Plus Two results will be permitted to register provisionally.

The next step after the Foundation is the Intermediate. Admission to the Intermediate examination will be granted after obtaining the Coaching Completion Certificate. For this certificate, the students should complete the following items of training.

•Group discussion

The students are required to appear in group discussion in each stage. The topics would be as per the choice of the students but within the curriculum of that particular stage.

•Business communication seminars – two

•Hands-on computer training – 50 hours

Those who possess recognised computer qualifications would be exempted from this part.

After passing the Intermediate examination, the candidates reach the Final. Appearance in the Final examination is permitted only after obtaining the necessary coaching completion certificate. For this certificate, the students should complete the following items of training.


Of 5,000 words, under the guidance of a person with the stipulated qualification

•Hands-on computer training – 100 hours

Those who possess recognised computer qualifications would be exempted from this part.

•Modular training for 15 working days, arranged by the institute

•Audit or industrial training for 12 Months



The very foundation of our democratic system is the rule of law. The function of defining and maintaining the rights and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, with fairness and justice falls in the domain of law. There are numerous avenues for those who are qualified in law. They can work as lawyers, solicitors, judges, notaries, legal officers in government, legal advisers, legal editors, and commissioned officers in the Judge Advocate General’s Department of the army.

The legal profession has specialists who deal with specific laws – civil, criminal, taxation, company, constitutional, labour and so on.

LLB, the first degree, can be acquired after Plus Two by undergoing a five-year course in a law college. Graduates in any discipline can however finish the LLB programme in three years. After LLB, one can go for LLM in subjects such as international law, constitutional law, mercantile law, criminal law, administrative law, business law, and human rights law.

In order to ensure excellence in legal education, a few States have set up Law Universities in places such as Bangalore, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Jodhpur, Bhopal, Gandhinagar, Raipur, Chennai, Patna, Lucknow, Patiala, and Kochi. Some of these universities select candidates for the first degree based on the Common Law Admission Test (CLAT). Some of these universities conduct not only the 5-year BA, LLB(Honours) and 2-year LLM programmes, but M.Phil., Ph.D., and LLD programmes.

Despite the diverse merits of the legal profession, one disadvantage commonly pointed out is that there is a long gestation period for the evolution of a lawyer who can practise independently. But those who work with persistence and dedication do scale great heights.

The legal fraternity has a vital role to play in ensuring equity and fairness in society. It is a matter of pride and prestige to be part of the legal system.

Guidanceplus archives: http:/


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NDA is looking for you

Just finished your Plus Two examination and ready to serve the nation? Take the National Defence Academy (NDA) and Naval Academy Examination on August 17 for a career in the Army, the Air Force or the Navy as a class 1 commissioned officer.

The Union Public Service Commission normally conducts the examination twice a year.

The first this year is being held on April 20 for those who have already applied.

The examination later in the year is for the course starting on June 30, 2009. The number of provisional vacancies is 339 (195 for the Army, 39 for the Navy, 66 for the Air Force and 39 for the executive branch of the Naval Academy).

Applicants are required to give their preferences for the service they wish to join. However, the rank they secure in the merit list will decide where they can join.

Examination The NDA examination comprises a written examination, intelligence tests and group tests. The latter two will be conducted by the Services Selection Board (SSB) for candidates who qualify in the written examination. A pilot aptitude test is conducted for Air Force candidates. A candidate who fails in this can never again apply for the Air Force wing.

Only unmarried male candidates born not earlier than July 2, 1990 and not later than January 1, 1993 are eligible to take the examination. The minimum education qualifications needed for the Army wing is pass in 12th class of the 10+2 pattern of school education or equivalent examinations conducted by a State education Board or university. A pass in the 12th class with physics and mathematics is needed for admission to the Air Force and naval wings and the executive branch of the Naval Academy.

Candidates who are appearing for the qualifying examination can also apply.

Last date Applications must reach the Secretary, Union Public Service Commission, Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi – 110 069, by hand or by post/Speed Post or by courier, on or before April 15. However, candidates residing abroad or in certain remote localities can send their applications by post or Speed Post, and not by hand or courier, so as to reach the secretary on or before April 22.

The written examination comprises a mathematics paper of 300 marks and a general ability paper of 600 marks, each of two-and-a-half hours. The questions are objective type. The general ability test consists of English, general knowledge, physics, chemistry, general science, history (Freedom Movement and so on), geography and current events.

For each wrong answer, one-third of a mark will be cut.

The SSB tests span five days. Intelligence tests will have both verbal and non-verbal questions. Group tests comprise group discussions, group planning, outdoor group tasks and brief lectures on specified subjects. These are intended to judge the mental calibre of a candidate.

A candidate recommended by SSB will undergo a medical examination by a Board of Service Medical Officers. Qualified candidates are sometimes rejected on medical grounds. Candidates are hence advised to get themselves medically examined before submitting their applications to avoid disappointment at the final stage.

The candidate must be in good physical and mental health and free from any disease or disability which can interfere with military duties. The minimum height required is 157.5 cm (162.5 cm for the Air Force).

The selected candidates for the three wings are given preliminary training, both academic and physical, for three years at the NDA.

On passing out, they will be awarded B.Sc., B.Sc. (computer) and BA degrees from Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi.

The Army cadets then go to the Indian Military Academy (IMA), Dehra Dun, Naval cadets to the cadet trainingship and the Air Force cadets to the Air Force Academy, Hyderabad.

For more details visit

Courtesy:The Hindu , Education Plus, April 17, 2008

Explore More:National Defence Academy, India

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Career in Geophysics

Career Opportunities in Geophysics

Geophysics, a branch of Earth sciences, is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods, especially by seismic, electromagnetic, and radioactivity methods. The theories and techniques of geophysics are employed extensively in the planetary sciences in general.

As the name implies, geophysics involves the application of physical theories and measurements to discover the properties of the earth. The discipline dates to antiquity, mainly as a scientific approach to earthquake prediction (a problem still unsolved), but major progress began in the late 1500s with initial work in such areas as magnetism and gravity. Tremendous improvements in instrumentation in the early years of the 20th century generated rapid progress in geophysics and ultimately led, in the 1960s, to the theory of plate tectonics.

Plate tectonics, the study of the interior structure of the earth, and such related areas as global and regional processes are known collectively as solid earth geophysics. The sub discipline known as exploration geophysics involves the use of geophysical theory and instrumentation to locate petroleum and other mineral sources. Unlike solid earth geophysics, exploration geophysics generally concentrates on finding lateral heterogeneities in a relatively small part of the earth’s crust.

Geophysics has increased dramatically man’s ability to exploit natural resources. Human senses cannot quantify, or even detect many physical phenomena (e.g., magnetism). Humans cannot detect variations in the earth’s gravitation field of one part per million, but modern gravity meters can (in fact, to 0.02 parts per million or better). Seismology, the primary method of petroleum exploration, requires exact timing and recording of very low-amplitude vibrators, vibrations (or shaking) that is far below that which a human would sense.

The earliest use of geophysics in India can be traced to Colonel William Lambton, who suggested a survey in 1799 which ultimately resulted in a geodetic network to study the earth’s ellipticity. Gravity fields has been studied in India since 1830s when Col. George Everest, the then Surveyor General of India carried out precise measurements of the great arc established around 77°30”E longitude and discovered difference between geodetic and astronomical measurements of latitude between Kalina and Kalianpur.

In 1955, Oil and Natural Gas Division was created in GSI. The division became a directorate and subsequently a commission, in 1959. Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) in 1957, started gravity and magnetic data acquisition in most of the basins of India on regular grid. ONGC used Russian and American made instruments.

Geophysics for oil exploration was used first in 1923 by Burman Oil Corporation (BOC) in the Indus Valley using a Torsion balance. Electrical surveys were first carried out in Nellore District and later in Singhbhum for copper in 1933 by Ms/. Piepmeyer and Kelbof. The credit of first geophysical survey by an Indian goes to late Shri M.B.R. Rao when in 1937 he carried out electrical surveys for sulphide ore deposits in Mysore. During the war between 1939-45, Mysore Geological Department with Shri. M.B.R. Rao was the only organization carrying out geophysical work using self-potential and resistivity surveys.

Geophysical Education in India
Major Institutions which have been teaching Geophysics in India since 1949 are: Andhra University, Wallair, Benaras Hindu University, Varanasi, I.I.T. Kharagpur, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, University of Roorkee and Osmania University, Hyderabad.
Geophysics education was started in India almost simultaneously at Andhra University, (AU) and Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1949. The Andhra University started courses leading to B.Sc. and later to M.Sc. degrees in the disciplines:
a Meteorology and Oceanography
b. Physics of the Earth’s interior.
Initially the courses were of 2 years duration, which were upgraded to 3 years in 1955. Prof. N.K. Sen was the first Head of the department during the period 1949-52. In 1978. The Andhra University started a two years M.Sc. course in Marine Geophysics. At BHU, Geophysics teaching was started as a part of the Geology Department in 1949, when Prof. Rajnath was the Head of the Department. Later (1964) Geophysics got separated and Prof. H.S. Rathor was the first Head of the Department. At present specialization in Exploration Geophysics (3 years M.Sc. course) as well as Meteorology is being offered.
In 1951 the Dept. of Geology and Geophysics was established at the Indian Institute of Technology (I.I.T.) Kharagpur. Initially the department offered a 3 years integrated course in Geology and Geophysics. In 1957, postgraduate courses of one-year duration (DIIT) as well as a two-year course in M.Sc. in Geophysics were introduced. The later is still continuing.
At the University of Roorkee (UOR), 3 years M. Tech. course in Geophysics was started in 1969, as a part of the Geology department, under the leadership of Prof. R.S. Mittal. At Osmania University Hyderabad, teaching of Geophysics was started in 1965, when a 3 years. M. Tech course was introduced. Under Indo-Soviet bilateral agreement (1966) the Dept. of Geophysics at Osmania received a considerable technical and manpower assistance from the Soviet Union; In 1969 the Center of Exploration Geophysics (CEG) was established at the University. Core Courses and Specialization At present all the Departments of Geophysics are teaching courses such as Numerical Analysis, Communication Theory, Electrical and Electromagnetic Methods of Prospecting, Signal Processing. Computer Programming, Well-Logging, Seismic, Gravity and Magnetic Methods of Prospecting, Mining Geophysics, and Petroleum Exploration.

The Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad is offering a specialized course in Petroleum Exploration leading to M. Tech. Degree. Some of the departments are offering specialized courses (as options) in different subjects such as Meteorology, Marine Geophysics, Seismology and Earth’s Interior, Geoelectricity, Geomagnetism, Remote Sensing, Environmental Geophysics, Advanced Hydrology etc. Almost all the departments of Geophysics have well qualified staff, laboratories as well as computer facilities.

Careers in Geophysics

Geophysicists are involved in field investigation; laboratory studies and experiments; data collection from instruments placed below the earth’s surface and from satellites hundreds of kilometers above the surface; data processing and analysis using some of the world’s most potent supercomputers; and drilling wells thousands of meters deep.

The long-range forecast for employment opportunities for geophysicists are very good, particularly since exploration geophysics degrees incorporate diverse fields of study and practical field experience. Exploration for coal, petroleum, minerals and water, concern about the environment, and the disposal of hazardous waste are just a few of the challenging areas which will require the skills of trained geophysicists for many years to come.

The oil and gas industry has traditionally been a big employer of geophysicists in general, and seismologists in particular. The job market tends to fluctuate rapidly in this field, but there is a potential for high salary. Employers tend to prefer students with a Master’s degree, but may hire those with only a BS and then support the student’s future education.

Environmental consulting companies are often keen to hire geophysicists because of their quantitative background. This can be useful in modeling the subsurface flow of contaminated water, for instance. This job market is subject to economic fluctuations as well, but has long term stability because companies must continuously adhere to laws and governmental regulations concerning the environment.

Various private consulting companies also exist for performing verification seismology and estimating seismic hazard. These firms are common outlets for students with advanced degrees in seismology.

In India ONGC and NGRI mainly employs Geophysicist. The Oil and Natural Gas Agency Ltd., ranks as the Numero Uno Oil & Gas Exploration & Production (E&P) Company in Asia, as per Platts 250 Global Energy Companies List for the year 2007 is the main employer of Geophysicist in India. The National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) was established under CSIR in 1961 at Hyderabad with the mission to be the premier geoscientific organisation in India. Over the last three and half years , it has established an enviable reputation with its excellent research programs and developments in earth sciences that have provided the benefit of its scientific and technological prowess for the well being of the people of the country.

The United States Geological Survey commonly hires geophysicists to study and help mitigate hazards from earthquakes and volcanoes. Although many people hired by the USGS have advanced degrees, there are opportunities for those with only undergraduate degrees. Two of the national nuclear weapons labs, Los Alamos National Labs, and Lawrence Livermore National Labs, commonly hire geophysicists to work in verification seismology. In this field, seismic data from around the world are continuously monitored for evidence of nuclear weapons tests. The labs pay very high salaries and provide many opportunities for student internships. We have recently had three SLU undergraduates participate as interns at national labs.

The U.S. Military does hire geophysicists in various capacities, and the individuals need not be actual members of the armed services. One example is the Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) in Melbourne, Florida. Here geophysicists contribute to monitoring the world for clandestine nuclear weapons tests using techniques developed to study earthquakes. A second example is the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), located in Hanover, New Hampshire. Here geophysicists use seismic methods to increase battlefield awareness.

The U.S. Military does hire geophysicists in various capacities, and the individuals need not be actual members of the armed services. One example is the Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) in Melbourne, Florida. Here geophysicists contribute to monitoring the world for clandestine nuclear weapons tests using techniques developed to study earthquakes. A second example is the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL), located in Hanover, New Hampshire. Here geophysicists use seismic methods to increase battlefield awareness.

A geophysics degree is a great choice for someone wanting to be a high-school math or science teacher. It provides a sound general background in applied math, electricity and magnetism, heat flow, and elasticity, and it also provides expert knowledge about volcanism, earthquakes, plate tectonics, and the solar system.

For those interested in teaching at the college level, a PhD in geophysics is required; however, the SLU undergraduate program is specifically designed for students who wish to pursue an advanced degree in geophysics. Guidance on applying to and selecting graduate schools is commonly provided by the faculty. Graduate school in geophysics is generally free; institutions commonly waive tuition and provide students with stipends of 15-20K per year while pursuing their studies. It is important to note that an advanced geophysics degree is also beneficial in many non-academic career paths (as noted above).

(The author is Geologist and working as Project Scientist in Jharkhand Space Application Centre, Ranchi. )

Filed under: Career Corner, ,

Career Corner


Common Law Admission Test (CLAT)

Common entrance examinations are no longer the prerogative of technical, medical or management education institutes. Beginning this year, the national law schools of the country will launch a Common Law Admission Test (CLAT), through which students can seek admission to some of the prestigious law institutions. The national law schools, opened in the last two decades, have been responsible for instilling professionalism in legal education and making it attractive to the in telligentsia.

Although there are 12 law schools in the country, only 10 will make use of the CLAT score for their integrated law degree admissions this year. They are: the National Law School of India University (NLSIU), Bangalore; National Academy for Legal Studies and Research University (NALSAR), Hyderabad; National University for Juridical Sciences (NUJS), Kolkata; National Law University (NLU), Jodhpur; National Law Institute University (NLIU), Bhopal; Gujarat National Law University (GNLU), Gandhi Nagar; Hidayatullah National Law University (HNLU), Raipur; Chanakya National Law University (CNLU), Patna; Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University (RMLNLU), Lucknow; and Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law (RGNUL), Patiala. The National University of Advanced Legal Studies (NUALS), Kochi, the only national law school in Kerala, will not join the CLAT scheme this year. “We decided not to join CLAT owing to certain limitations,” says N. Narayanan Nair, Vice-Chancellor in-charge of NUALS.

NUALS is yet to have full-fledged infrastructure, including a women’s hostel. “We will complete our infrastructural work in two or three years. Then, we will certainly join the CLAT regime,” says Dr. Nair, who is chairman of the Bar Council executive committee.

NUALS authorities fear that joining the CLAT regime now will dilute its standard and quality as it will get relatively low-ranked candidates. For the time being, NUALS will continue its admission process through an exclusive entrance examination.

Time to apply


For those seeking admission to some of the best law schools in the country, it is time to apply for the CLAT. The examination on May 11 will be held in 20 centres across the country. Kochi will be the lone centre in Kerala. The other centres in the South are Bangalore, Hyderabad and Chennai.

April 10 will be the last date to apply. The results will be announced on May 17, the sixth day after the examination. The admission process will be completed by the first week of June. Application forms are being issued from January 31 at select bank counters across the country and directly from the NLSIU, Bangalore.

The Corporation Bank branches at Ravipuram and Sannidhi Road, Kochi; and the State Bank of India branch at Calrathy Lane, Kochi, are issuing application forms in Kerala.

The application fee is Rs. 2,000. Those buying the application form from the banks should remit the fee there. Those seeking application forms from the NLSIU should send a request letter for CLAT application form to the convener, CLAT, National Law School of India University, Bangalore 560 242, along with a demand draft for Rs. 2,000 drawn in favour of the convener, CLAT, payable at Bangalore.

Students can download the application form from the CLAT web site, The fee of Rs. 2,000 (DD) should be sent along with the application. The application should be sent to the convener, Common Law Admission Test (CLAT), National Law School of India University, Nagarbhavi, Bangalore-560242 (ph: 080-232 13160, 231 60532).

Students who have passed the Plus Two examination with 50 per cent or more marks in aggregate but will not complete 20 years of age on July 1, 2008, can apply for CLAT. Those taking the Plus Two examination this year can also apply. SC/ST candidates will get an age relaxation of two years.

CLAT will be a two-hour examination of 200 marks. As 2008 will be the maiden year of CLAT, there will be no previous question papers for the applicants to take cue from. However, CLAT organisers say it will have no negative marks. The examination will have five sections, with 40 marks in English, 50 in general knowledge, 20 in mathematics, 40 in legal aptitude, and 50 in logical reasoning. The questions will be of objective type.

With hardly three months for CLAT, some training institutes advise students to embark on a carefully chalked-out study plan. For general knowledge, the suggestion is to divide the topics into several categories as the Constitution, the United Nations, history, geography, current affairs, books and authors, and so on and study each of them thoroughly.

Vocabulary section in English can prove to be tricky if students do not start working on them right away. Besides, trainers suggest that the students need plenty of practice for tackling comprehension passages and grammar segment.

Students should brush up their arithmetic ability picked up by them till class X. Questions can be expected from areas such as simple and compound interest, profit and loss, time and distance, averages, ratio and proportions, sets and so on.

Questions on legal reasoning will contain a legal principle, which students are expected to apply in a given situation and choose the most appropriate answer.

The legal reasoning segment, according to some trainers, can be unpredictable. In CLAT 2008, bulk of the questions may come from critical reasoning, they say. The questions have to be solved by a process of elimination and a couple of options may appear equally correct. Properly reading and comprehending the critical reasoning problem will hold the key. Apart from newspapers, magazines and year books, past year question papers of different national law schools have been suggested for reference for those preparing for CLAT.

Hema Raman, a law professor at Sriram Law Academy, a training organisation for law aspirants, says CLAT will invite the attention of discerning students from science, commerce and humanities streams.

“With salary packages soaring and foreign placements gaining prominence, legal education has become one of the most preferred career options among students,” she says.

Till this year, national law schools had been conducting independent entrance examinations. Students aspiring good legal education had to write a number of admission tests, undergoing tremendous hardship both physically and financially.

It was a writ petition filed by Varun Bhagat against the Centre and various national law schools in the Supreme Court in 2006 that prompted the CLAT. In the course of hearing, the Chief Justice of India directed the government to consult the National Law Schools with a view to evolving a scheme for a common admission test. The Bar Council of India supported the move.

Since all national law schools owe their existence to State legislation, there is no central agency to coordinate their activities. Therefore, a move such as common admission test requires the consensus of all schools participating in such a process. To facilitate such a consensus, the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development and the University Grants Commission convened a meeting of the Vice-Chancellors of seven schools, namely NLSIU, NALSAR, NLIU, NUJS, NLU, HNLU and GNLU, which have been functioning for some time.

Those seven National Law Schools signed a memorandum of understanding on November 23, 2007, committing themselves to holding the common admission test. According to this MoU, the CLAT will be conducted every year by each school on rotation as per the criterion of seniority. The NLSIU, Bangalore, the oldest of the schools, has set the process in motion by undertaking to conduct the admission test for the academic year 2008-09.

Three other national law schools have already agreed to make use of the CLAT results for their admissions. The others are expected to join the CLAT regime in a couple of years.

Filed under: Career Corner,

Career Corner

Course in ‘Mental health at the margins’



The Chennai-based Banyan Academy of Leadership in Mental Health (BALM), in association with University College London (UCL), will offer a short-term course in ‘Mental health at the margins’ between February 11 and 14. The course is aimed at enabling trainee participants to understand and better appreciate issues pertaining to debt, poverty, violence, stigma, power relations and how these can be translated on the ground, where actions to overcome these problems can impact most usefully and significantly. The focus would be on local problems and local solutions. The course is targeted at mental health professionals (social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, occupational therapists, nurses) from NGOs and government health institutions, working with marginal and displaced populations in south Asia. It will also benefit professionals from backgrounds such as rights activists, law enforcement officials, judiciary and donor organisations. The course aims to address the stated objectives through a variety of techniques over a three and half-day period.

It will include an overview of the field, challenges and differing solutions. Participants will, through interactive study, learn to generate ideas, and then apply these new understandings within a safe teaching setting. Within a package comprising theoretical study and experiential focus group learning, trainee participants will gain a fuller critical awareness and applied understanding of the pertinent issues. It would look at topics such as marginality. A UCL-BALM certificate of participation will be issued to participants.

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